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grinder such as the Handee is available, the polishing may be done with this. Resizing dies should be cut to reduce the internal neck diameter of the cartridge case .005" to .006" below bullet diameter if a neck expander plug is to be used. If this neck expander plug is not to be used the resizing dies should reduce the internal diameter of the case neck .003" to .0035" below bullet diameter. A very useful measuring gauge in making these dies is the #829 Starrett small-hole gauge. These gauges come singly or in a set of four.

The Starrett small-hole gauge, adjustable for size.

The smallest gauge covers internal diameters from to %0", the second from %0" to %0"> the third from Mo" to %0" and the fourth from %0" to These gauges vary from about 2%" to 3" in length. The handles are well knurled, as is also the operating nut on the rear end of the handle. The measuring end is a split ball on the end of a split shank, upon the other end of which is the handle and operating nut. A rod with a tapered head, between the split halves of the ball, runs through the gauge from the ball end to the operating nut on the rear of the handle. Tightening the nut on the rear end of this rod draws the tapered head between the split halves of the ball and expands the ball. After the gauge has been placed within the hole to be measured it is expanded until it fits the hole closely, then withdrawn and the diameter of the ball is measured with outside micrometers. These gauges sell for $1.80 each, or $8.20 for the set of four in a red leatherette case.

You ma3r wish to enlarge a sizing die to resize cases for use with lead bullets, instead of jacketed bullets for which the die was made, or later batches of cases may be made of heavier brass and the die will have to be enlarged to handle them. If the enlargement is only to be a few thousandths of an inch, it can be lapped out without annealing the die. If a small, high-speed, hand-type electric grinder like the Handee is available, the die may be mounted to run true in the lathe chuck, and the grinder mounted with a clamp in the tool post and used as a tool post grinder, with a small mounted stone in the chuck of the grinder to grind out the hole in the die. Without a lathe, discs of carborundum cloth can be mounted on an arbor for the Handee grinder and the hole in the die cut out a few thousandths of an inch by this method. If a high-speed drill-press or motor be available, with a chuck upon it, either the die or an arbor with carborundum discs may be mounted in the chuck and the die lapped out by this method. If no power is available, cut strips of carborundum cloth just the right width so that they will wrap around a reamer or twist-drill, carborundum side out, with the edges just meeting, the reamer or drill being the right size so that when wrapped it will be a tight fit in the die. The reamer or drill is gripped in the bench vise and the die is forced over it with a twisting motion and turned around and worked back and forth until the hole is lapped out enough. It may be necessary to use new strips of carborundum cloth on the reamer or drill from time to time.

If a die needs considerable enlarging and is case-hardened so that, grinding it out with a tool post grinder will cut through the hardening of the die, the die is heated red-hot and buried in slaked lime to anneal it. After cooling, the hole in the die may be enlarged by reaming or by boring it out larger in the lathe, after which the die is rehardened by case-hardening as directed in the chapter on heat treatment of steel.

Copper Jacketed Bullets

Plate XXII

Showing method of use of the bullet funning press—a jacketed bullet is jusc coming out of the die. After the bullet jackct, with the lead corc inside it, is dropped into the bullet forming die the handle of the bullet press is pulled down until it stops. The handle is then pushed straight back, raising the body part of the die from the point portion. A downward pull on the handle then ejects the finished bullet from the die.

Dies should be made of tool-steel, hardened clear through and in this case the die is heated and buried in slaked lime to anneal it, as is the case-hardened die before being cut out larger. To rehardcn it, heat it to cherry-red and quench it in water, then polish it and heat it slowly to straw color and quench it again in water.

Neck expander plugs may be reduced in size, if necessary, by mounting them in a lathe or drill-chuck and revolving them at high speed, while holding a piece of carborundum cloth against them to cut them down. They may also be ground down smaller while in the lathe chuck by using a tool post grinder, if the desired reduction is very great. If these are case-hardened instead of being tool-steel hardened all the way through, they will afterwards have to be rehard-ened by the regular case-hardening method.

On many reloading tools, depriming, or removal of the fired primer, is a separate operation, which is an inexcusable waste of time. Tools of this type which can be drilled with a hole for the outlet of the fired primer through the case head holder, can readily be changed over to deprime the case while they are being resized. If the tool uses an expander plug for case necks, a new plug is made-up with an extension below the expander plug which carries a depriming punch on the end of it, so that as the case is forced into the resizing die the decapping pin goes through the flash-hole and pushes the fired primer out of the case, whereupon it drops from the tool through the hole you drill down through the case head holder. If the case head holder is on top and the die for case resizing is below, a hole longer than the depth of the primer is drilled into the case head holder and a slot is cut from this hole to the outside of the case head holder, large enough to allow the primer to pass. When the decapping punch raises the fired primer out of the case being resized, it remains resting upon the top of the case and may set back into the case far enough to prevent the case being withdrawn from the case head holder, unless the slot mentioned above is cut through the side of the case head holder so that the case, with the fired primer resting on top of it, can be drawn out of the head holder.

If no expander plug is used, a straight shaft with a decapping pin upon the end of it can be set into the die, or into the end of the operating plunger of the tool to which the die is fastened.

The decapping pin may be made as part of the shaft, in which case the shaft had better be made of drill-rod or other high-carbon steel, or it may be made as a separate pin with a head upon it and be held to the shaft with a threaded cap. This threaded cap should be about half an inch long so that the pin has good support through the outer, unthreaded portion of the cap. Pins should be of drill-rod or other high-carbon steel but need not be hardened, as the thrust is all on the ends of the pin. If the pin does become bent it may be straightened if it is not hardened, whereas a hardened pin that is bent always means a broken pin. The end of the pin should be well rounded and the last of it tapered so that it will easily enter the flash, hole. The rest of the body of the pin should be the full size of the flash-hole, so that it will clear it of any caked fouling or turned-in brass from a burred edge on the hole.

Bench-type tools that are strong enough for full-length resizing are strong enough to neck-down cases to a smaller caliber, such as necking-down the .25-20 single-shot case to the .22-3000 Lovell or necking-down a .250-3000 Savage case to .22 caliber. The loading tool is merely used as a press, the necking-down die, with the case to be necked-down already in the die, is placed between the plunger and the die holder of the tool and the tool is used to force the case into the die. For removing the case from the die, a pin a little longer than the die is placed inside of the case and, with the die against a wide ring placed in the tool or against the frame of the tool with the regular dies removed, the plunger is used against the pin to force the formed case out of the necking-down die. The necking-down die may be made for regular attachment to the tool and the case to be necked-down may be held in the case head holder and pushed into the die and then withdrawn, just as in resizing any case in the tool.

In changing over a case head holder of a reloading tool to handle a larger head case or in making a new case head holder to hold a smaller case, the groove in the holder for the case rim is cut with a milling cutter of flat circular form, a trifle larger than the case head, which is very nice if you have the milling cutter or the time and equipment to make it. It may be made

A is spcdal milling cutter used to cut rim recess in the cartridge case head holder. B is a long-shanked buffer, used with carborundum discs cut so that they bend back over the shank to enter small holes.

in a lathe, the cutting head and shank being turned out in one piece from carbon or high-speed tool-steel, the shape being like a woodruff key-seat cutter which is illustrated in any catalog of milling cutters such as

Brown & Sharpe or Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co. The head, on which the cutting teeth are made around the edge, should be slightly thicker out at the edge than anywhere else, so that the cutter will have clearance and not bind in the slot After the blank is turned to size and shape, the teeth may be cut in the edge with a three-square file and the clearance filed upon them, after which the cutter is hardened and then tempered at medium to light straw color.

For cartridges such as the .30'06 or cases of like head size, or for a rimmed case that has the same head diameter as the .30'06, a regular woodruff key-seat cutter of diameter by thick may be used, although if it is ground to a thickness of it will make a better fit.

The steel on which the head holding slot is to be cut is first cut with an end mill of the same diameter as the cannelure in the case, near the head of a rimless case or the same size as the body of a rimmed case just ahead of the rim, whichever case the head holder is for. This end mill is started at the edge of the case head holder and mills a groove across the end from this one side to the position in which the case is to set in the holder, the depth of the groove being the thickness of the case head plus about The cutter of woodruff key-seat type is then started cutting at the same place the end mill was started, but with the end of this cutter right on the bottom of the slot cut by the end mill. This cutter is run-in the width of the case rim farther than the end mill was run-in, to give clearance for the rim, which completes the milling cuts for the case head holder.

Now, if we have no milling machine or milling attachment available, this case head holder can be machined on the lathe and finished by hand. The steel for the head holder is mounted in the lathe chuck and the end is faced off square and drilled with a drill the same diameter as a rimless case in the cannelure or extractor groove or the diameter of the body of a rimmed case just ahead of the rim, whichever is to be held in the case head holder. A high-speed steel lathe bit is then notched, with a thin grinding wheel, at one side, near the end, the notch being as deep, plus a little clearance, as the groove for holding the case rim. The end of the bit, beyond the notch is then ground to the thickness of the case rim and the sides and front, below the cutting edge, are ground back to give the cutting edge clearance. This bit is then used like a boring tool to cut a groove a little

Special lathe tool, of high speed steel, ground to cut the rim recess in the cartridge case head holder.

larger than the diameter of the case rim, starting about from the end of the case holder. We now have a hole in the end of the case holder the diameter of the extractor groove or bod}' of the case, depending upon whether it is for a rimless or a rimmed case, and He" below the outer end of this hole we have a groove cut, slightly greater in diameter and depth than the rim of the case. The next operation is to cut a side outlet to this groove and hole so that cases may be inserted and withdrawn.

This operation may be done in two ways, either by making a saw cut, with a hack-saw. across the end of the case head holder, at the edge of the circular hole

for the case body and then making another hack-saw cut at right-angles to this, from the closest edge of the case head holder to the first saw cut, just the distance from the end of the steel that the bottom of the groove below the circular body hole for the case is. This side outlet is then cut out straight with files, so that the case may be slid into place in the case head holder. This method gives all the metal necessary to hold the case head while the case is being resized.

The second method is to carry the groove for the case rim and the body hole clear out to the edge of the case head holder. To do this the body hole is first carried out in a straight slot the full width of the hole to the edge of the steel with files. A thin flat file is then used to carry out the slot for the case rim, at each side, clear to the edge of the steel. This leaves more metal on the end of the case head holder than the first method but is slower and adds very little to the strength of the case head holder. The end of the case head holder which holds the case should be case-hardened, so that the edges of the groove will not round off with use and allow the case head to slip out. As the rim left above the groove for the case rim is thin, too deep a case-hardening will make it brittle so that it will easily crack off, so for this case-hardening job the cyanide method will be the best to use.

Bullet-seating plungers are easily changed, to handle bullets of differently shaped points than they were designed for, by making a flat reamer the shape of the bullet, as was described as the type of reamer used to cut bullet swaging dies. These bullet plungers are usually of soft steel, if not they can be heated to a red-heat and buried in slaked lime to anneal. Mount the bullet-seating plunger in the lathe chuck so that it runs true, then place the reamer in a drill chuck in the tail stock of the lathe. Loosen the clamp that locks the tail stock to the lathe bed and loosen the clamp that locks the tail stock spindle and run it out of the tail stock as far as it will go and still remain on the screw. Run the lathe at low speed and, putting plenty of lard-oil or black sulphur-oil on the reamer, push the entire tail stock along the bed of the lathe until the reamer enters the hole in the bullet-seating plunger and feed it in, while it cuts, by pressure of your hand against the entire tail stock, so that it slides forward on the bed of the lathe as the reamer cuts. This makes the reamer cut a smoother hole, truer to size than if you locked the tail stock to the bed of the lathe and fed the reamer with the hand wheel of the tail stock spindle. During the cutting, withdraw the reamer from the hole from time to time, clean it and the hole and give it a new supply of cutting oil. Each time you withdraw it examine the cutting edge and if it is roughened or dulled, stone it on the flat top with a hand-stone of fine grain. After the hole is fitted to the bullet you are going to use, relieve the edges of the hole at the end with a tapered, round hand-stone or a taper reamer, followed by carborundum cloth to smooth the edge up. If you do not do this, the edge of the hole will probably leave a mark around the bullet or may even seat on the bullet tightly enough to cause an air lock. The pressure applied to seat the bullet should be applied about half-way down the cavity or farther, not at the lower edge.

The reamer for recutting the bullet-seating plunger may be made without a lathe, if the right diameter tool-steel or drill-rod can be obtained. It may be held in a chuck on the end of the shaft of an electric motor and filed to shape with a fine flat file, then polished with carborundum cloth to remove file marks. Keep the file well coated with chalk, which will prevent it pinning and scratching the work.

After the blank is filed to bullet shape and polished, it is removed from the chuck and the shaped end is filed down to just half its thickness, plus about .002" left for stoning. The reamer is then hardened by heating to cherry-red and quenching in water, after which it is polished and then heated slowly to a dark straw color and is then quenched again in water. Take a fine hand-stone with a tjood flat surface and stone the flat of the reamer until that part is just half the original thickness of the blank.

By using the reamer in a tee-handled tap-wrench of medium size, the bullet seating plunger may be recut to the reamer shape by hand. This type of reamer is not easy to use by hand, so go carefully and do not crowd it too much. Use plenty of cutting oil and clean the reamer and the hole of chips quite often.

Primer magazine tubes and feeding plates may be added to many of the bench tools but as these tools differ considerably, no detailed directions can be given unless a completely detailed description is given for each tool which would take up too much space. One general type can be applied to many of the tools and with modifications can be fitted to most of them, so I shall describe this type.

It consists of a body longer than the cartridge and somewhat larger in diameter. This body is drilled with a hole, lengthwise, of a diameter that will let the cartridge case go into it. A shaft is set into this body-part, extending up through the hole previously drilled, of a diameter that the case will easily slide over. This shaft is drilled for a distance down from the top with a drill of any diameter that will leave a fairly heavy side wall. A coil-spring is placed in this hole in the shaft and a second shaft with a head the diameter of the first shaft and a shank a diameter to be an easy slide fit in the hole in the first shaft is put into the first shaft on top of the coil-spring. These parts should be regulated for length, so that a cartridge case placed mouth-down over the spring-backed shaft can be pressed down so that when the head on the second shaft is tightly against the top of the first shaft, within which it slides, the top surface of the cartridge case will be ys" below the top of the body part. When the finger pressure is released from the top of the cartridge case the spring-backed plunger should raise the case high enough so that it is easily withdrawn from the body part with the fingers.

The top of the body part is slotted, from side to side, across the center, with a slot wide and deep. In this slot is fitted a piece of flat steel, wide and Vs" thick and as long as the distance across the top of the body part, or longer. At the center of this, at one end, a narrow piece, about wide, of the same material is left, an inch or more long. At one edge of this body part, at one end or the other of the slot cut across the top, a thick piece of steel is attached, to the side of the body part. This piece has a slot cut through it so that the x flat steel slide can pass through it. On the outer end of this slot a stop is attached which may be a steel plate or only a screw with the edge extending over the end of the slot so that the %</' wide part of the slide can pass but the wide part is stopped when it reaches the end of the slot through the heavy piece. This heavy piece is drilled through from the top into the groove in which the flat slide operates for the primer magazine tube, which is a brass or copper tube. Directly below this hole for the primer tube a hole large enough to admit a primer is drilled through the slide plate while the slide is clear out against its stop. A coil-spring is put around the %e" wide part of the slide plate so that one end of it is against the outside of the heavy part carrying the primer tube. A washer is placed over the shank of the slide plate against the other end of the spring and the shank is drilled for a

Homemade Automatic Gun Tube

small pin outside or beyond the washer, to hold the spring in place.

When the outer end of this narrow shank of the slide plate is pressed, the slide plate moves over the

Home-made automatic priming device. A is primer slide plate. B shows detail of the spring plunger upon which the ease rests while being primed.

head of a cartridge case in place in the body part and carrics with it, in its hole below the primer tube, a primer, open side down. The spring around the shank of the slide plate may be cut the right length to act as a stop when the hole in the slide plate is directly over the primer pocket of the cartridge case, or another type of stop may be arranged, such as a tube over the coil-spring, so that the washer behind the spring pushes this tube against the heavy part carrying the primer tube and stops the slide with its hole directly over the primer pocket of the case. The cartridge ease may be depressed in the body part of the primer mechanism with the thumb, while one of the fingers of the same hand pushes the primer slide plate across the top of the cartridge case. The spring around the shank of the primer slide plate should be stiffer than the spring on the plunger which lifts the cartridge case out of the body part. This is so that as soon as the primer seating plunger starts the primer into the primer pocket in the cartridge case, the pressure can be removed from the end of the shank of the primer slide plate and when the primer is fully seated and the seating plunger withdrawn from the slide plate, the stiffer spring on the shank of the slide plate will snap the slide plate back off the top of the case head and beneath the primer tube to receive a new primer. The primer magazine tube may be set solidly into the heavy part on the body of the tool, or a socket may be set into this heavy part with a slot sawed lengthwise of the socket part-way down from the top, so that the magazine tube can be drilled crosswise, near the bottom end, for a small cotter pin or cross pin of any type in order that the tube can be lifted from the socket, the cross pin inserted, the tube filled with primers and turned upright and placed back into the socket, after which the cross pin is withdrawn, allowing the primers to pass out of the bottom of the tube as they are used. The slot in the socket is to allow the primer tube to be placed back into the socket full depth, with the cross pin holding the primers in place still in the tube. The upper end of the tube for the primers can be slotted with a thin saw blade and the sides of the tube sprung slightly together at the ends so that the primers may be picked up by pressing the end of the tube over them. The primers can be dumped out in a box top and all primers turned the correct side up are picked up in the tube, after which the box top is shaken so that more primers are turned over, and so on until the tube is filled.

The plunger that seats the primers in the cartridge case is mounted in the opposite part of the tool than that to which the body part of the primer mechanism is attached, so that when the handle of the tool is operated the body-part carrying the case to be reprimed and the primer seating punch meet, so that the reprim-ing is completed.

On some tools it will be possible to have the shank of the slide plate operated by the movement of the tool, an inclined surface coming against the end of the slide plate shank to move the slide plate across the top of the cartridge case. If this principle is used, it will operate better if a small roller is fitted on the end of the primer slide plate shank, or instead of the roller a hardened ball may be used.

Loading tools having sufficient leverage can be equipped with a bullet-pulling device. It is usually desirable to make this so that it can readily be adapted to various calibers that you may reload for as time goes on, so a rather heavy body with a clamp device should be made to attach to the opposite part of the reloading too! from the case head holder. This heavy body part is bored out at the end to take dies of a diameter of y2" or more to clamp onto the bullet. These dies are all made with the same outside diameter but are drilled and reamed with an internal diameter to fit different caliber bullets that are to be pulled. These dies are of high-carbon steel and arc split, lengthwise of the hole for the bullet, so that pressure applied to the sides will close the split sides together upon the bullet.

The clamping part of the device is attached to the heavy body part and may be made in either the screw-clamp type or the eccentric-lever type, which is the fastest. In the screw-type, the heavy body part is split lengthwise, at one side, for a distance up from the lower edge and a coarse-thread screw with a tee-liandle is passed through the two sides, clear of the central hole however, so that tightening up the screw will draw the slot together and cause the sides to exert pressure upon the split bullet die, closing this down tightly upon the bullet. If it is not possible to hold the bullet die in place in the heavy body part with a screw- from the end of the heavy part threaded into the upper end of the bullet die, a screw may be run in from the side through the body part and into the die near the upper end.

The eccentric-lever clamp-type uses a lever with a rounded end, set in a slot cut in one side of the body part, and swung on a pin through the body at right-angles to the slot. The pin hole in the rounded end of the lever is not in the center of the rounded end but is slightly off-center, or eccentric, so that when the lever is swung down or up, as the case may be, the rounded end is forced farther into the center hole where the bullet die is placed. The bullet die is so placed that one of its solid sides is presented to the rounded end of the lever, so that pressure upon the die by the rounded end of the lever forces one side of the split bullet die toward the opposite side and clamps down upon the bullet.

This bullet die is not split for its full length but only for about %" and the saw slot ends in a drilled hole drilled through both sides of the die, at right-angles to the hole for the bullet. This hole may be or diameter. After this hole is drilled and the slot is sawed, following the drilling and reaming of the hole for the bullet, both of these holes are plugged with mild steel rod and the die is heated red-hot and quenched in a thin oil. It is then polished and heated slowly to a deep blue and again quenched in the thin oil. This will give it a spring temper. The mild steel plugs are withdrawn and the die is ready for use. The die is, of course, tapped for the screw holding it in place in the body part before being hardened and tempered.

If the eccentric-lever clamp is used, this lever should be made of tool-steel. To harden and temper this, heat it to a red-heat and quench it in water, after which polish it and carefully draw the temper to deep blue all over, except the side from the hole for the pin to the rounded edge that bears against the bullet die. This portion must be drawn as little as possible, so start your tempering heat at the other end of the lever and work down toward the eccentric end and as soon as the portion beyond the pin hole turns to a straw-yellow quench the lever in water. This lever may be made of flat tool-steel or %6" thick and it is set edgewise into the body of the bullet-puller. The handle part may have two pieces of wood or of rounded mild-steel riveted upon its sides to make it easier on your hand in operating it.

If the bullet pulling is to be done usually in a shop where a lathe equipped with draw-in collet chucks is available, this will beat any loading tool for pulling bullets. A head holder for the cartridge cases is made up on the end of a piece of round stock and the shank of this is gripped in a chuck set tightly into the tail stock spindle. A collet chuck of the size to fit the bullet is placed in the head spindle, the tail stock spindle is then run out an inch or two and a loaded case is placed in the head holder. The tail stock spindle is then run forward far enough so that the bullet enters the collet up to the case mouth. The collet is then tightened upon the bullet and the tail stock spindle is drawn away from the head stock by turning the hand wheel or crank on the tail stock, thus drawing the case off of the bullet.

Recutting Bullet Moulds

After a barrel for lead bullets has been recut to a larger size, ("freshened" as it is often called) to remove pits or wear, a larger bullet must be cast to fit the new groove diameter of the barrel. To cast this larger bullet the old mould must be recut to a larger size, which means the making of a reamer or bullet cherry. This cherry is made in the same form as the old bullet, but its outside diameter is made .002" to .003" larger than the new groove diameter of the barrel.

A templet should be cut from thin sheet-steel, following the contour of the old bullet so that the nose shape of the new cherry can be checked and made the same shape as the old bullet while it is being turned and filed to shape in the lathe. This blank for the cherry is made from high-carbon tool-steel or drill-rod. After the blank is the proper shape, polish it thoroughly to remove all tool and file marks, bringing it to the proper size.

A parting or cut-off tool is then ground to the exact width of the grease grooves, these are cut into the blank at their proper places and to the correct depth, after which the cutting grooves are milled lengthwise of the blank, six grooves being made. Just as in cutting grooves in other reamers, the cutting edge is located .010" ahead of the center of the blank. A milling cutter of 60-degree angle is used to cut these grooves and the grooves must, of course, run clear to the point of the blank.

If no milling machine is available these grooves may be cut with a three-square needle file if you work carefully. It may be easier to start them, in this case, with a needle file of the knife or slitting type and then finish them with the three-square file.

After the grooves are completed, use a very fine needle file to remove the burrs left at the edges of the grooves by the milling cutter and use this file also to file clearance on the sides of the grease grooves from the cutting edge back to the milled groove behind it. Be sure and keep the bottom corners of these grease grooves sharp and square.

Clearance is now ground, filed or stoned on top of the flutes back of the cutting edge, after which the cherry is heated to red-heat and plunged endwise into cool water, in which it is moved rapidly in circles to prevent steam forming at its surface, which would prevent proper hardening. The cherry is now polished and then reheated with a low heat to a straw-yellow, then quenched again in the water. The cutting edges of the flutes are now stoned with a fine stone to remove tool marks on the face of the cutting edges and the top of the edge is touched lightly with the stone to remove any scale at that point. A stone should also be ground to small size and used to stone the sides of the grease grooves at the cutting edges.

In use, the cherry is placed in the mould and well oiled with a good cutting-oil compound or lard-oil. The mould is then closed upon the cherry with a light pressure and the cherry is turned with a tee-handled tap-wrench to cut the mould to the larger size. As the cutting proceeds the cherry is removed often from the mould and both it and the mould are carefully cleaned of chips.

An entirely new mould may be cut with the cherry by first drilling a pair of blank mould blocks with a twist-drill a little smaller in diameter than the body of the cherry in the grease grooves. The hole is drilled to slightly less depth in the blocks than the length of the bullet, but the difference is very slight so that the

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Berrel Crown Cutting Hand

Plate XXIII

Finishing the crown of a rifle muzzle by hand, using ;i strip of carborundum cloth wrapped around a ball bearing. After a countersink is first used to slightly crown the muzzle, the bore is plugged with a wooden plug to the bottom of the countersunk portion and the barrel end is then finished by hand as shown above.

cherry will just clean up the end of the drilled hole when it is in full length. In cutting a new mould the cherry is usually held in the chuck of a drill press and is driven by power at the lowest speed. If the mould blocks are equipped with handles, the blocks are allowed to lie upon the drill press table to keep the mould square with the cutter and the mould handles are held in one hand and gradually squeezed together. The mould blocks may be held in a drill press vise, the jaws of the vise being gradually tightened to bring the blocks together as the cutting proceeds. In this case the vise is not clamped to the table of the drill press, for if it is the tightening of the jaws will throw the halves of the mould out of line with the cutter.

After a barrel has been recut to a slightly larger size and a mould made to cast a bullet to fit the larger groove diameter, the necks of the cartridge cases must be increased in internal diameter to accept the new bullet. To do this, make a new inside neck sizing plug to fit the reloading tool being used. A correspondingly larger outside neck sizing die is also made ior the tool by grinding out the old neck sizing die.

Increasing the external diameter of the cartridge case neck by seating a larger bullet in it makes it necessary to enlarge the neck of the chamber in the barrel to accept this loaded cartridge. The amount of increase in size of the neck of the chamber should be exactly the same as the difference between the outside neck diameter of the old cartridge and of the new cartridge. This can usually be done by grinding a commercial hand reamer of slightly larger size to the correct size, grinding it on a slight taper and beveling the end at 45-degrees with clearance ground or stoned on the end of the flutes at the cutting edges. A commercial reamer of the corrcct size can sometimes be obtained and it is then only necessary to bevel the end and grind or stone the clearance on the ends of the flutes. These straight reamers have a slight taper at the end but it is more than is necessary so part of it should be stoned off. This taper at the end of the commercial straight reamers makes them smaller than their body size at this point so a reamer marked y.'¿" for instance will not cut a hole at the end so take this into consideration when picking a reamer to enlarge the neck of a chamber, as this end portion is the part of the reamer that will do the cutting in the neck of the chamber.

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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