Showing how small wedges are wired around a double-harrel shotgun, used to hold the rib in placc while it is being soldered.
the loosened portion of the rib place a small amount of powdered rosin and some fine solder shavings, then carefully heat the loosened portion of the rib and the barrels at that point, with a small torch flame until the solder melts and runs. Remove excess solder along the edge of the rib, after it has cooled, with small three-cornered scrapers.
Shot patterns of guns, either single or double-barrel, that are equipped with ribs, may be raised or lowered by lowering or raising the rib for a few inches at the muzzle. It is easiest to raise the pattern as it is only necessary to lower the rib, which carrics the front sight, to accomplish this. On double-guns, the rib is loosened for a few inches back from the muzzle and a little is filed off of each side of the rib, to narrow it. It is then pressed down into place on the barrels again where, on account of its narrower width, it takes a lower position and is then resoldered. The same result is accomplished with single-barrels equipped with a rib by loosening the rib and filing some from the bottom of the rib to lower it and then resoldering it in place.
Lowering the shot pattern by raising the rib is more difficult to accomplish but can be done by loosening the rib as before and soldering in place beneath it a piece of steel, to raise it the required amount, and then soldering the rib back in place on top of the steel shim. The sides will have to be filled in with solder on a double-gun where the rib is raised and also on a single-barrel gun with hollow rib. With a ventilated-rib barrel, the shims are cut the exact width of the rib supports, so no filling-in with solder is required at the edges.
Some of the shot pattern can be made to go higher or lower by cutting a little from the muzzle, at top or bottom, inside the bore. This can be clone with a carborundum file of round or half-round shape of the required size, or a reamer smaller than the diameter of the bore at the muzzle can be used to do the job by placing a steel shim beneath the reamer at the opposite side of the bore from where the cut is to be made. The shim protects the bore where it is not to be cut and raises the reamer so that it will cut at the side desired. After using either the carborundum file or the reamer, the bore is repolished at the point cut.
Cross-firing sometimes occurs with double-barrel guns. When this occurs at less than thirty yards the gun should be returned to the factory, for after cor recting cross-firing at this short distance the barrels will usually have to be refitted to the breech face. If the cross-firing occurs at a greater distance, separating the barrels more at the muzzle and for a few inches back will correct it.
The upper and lower ribs are both loosened with a small torch flame or a large soldering iron applied to the ribs for eight or ten inches back from the muzzle. The solder is also removed from the ends of the ribs at the muzzle. The distance between the barrels is
Showing how small steel piece is placed between barrels of a double gun, to force them apart to correct cross-firing.
measured and a piece of bright steel, thick enough to force the barrels farther apart, is pushed down between the barrels. This should be so adjusted in width that it will keep the top rib at the same height it was before, so that the gun will shoot to the same elevation. This piece of flat steel does not need to be more than two inches long. Apply flux and solder it in place, so that it will hold the ribs at the certain height desired for the top rib when they are replaced. The ribs are then "brought down into place and wires run around the barrel with wedges beneath them on top of the ribs, as was previously described for resoldering ribs. The bottom rib can be brought right back against both barrels for resoldering but the top rib, if maintaining the same elevation as before, will not quite touch the barrels and this gap must be filled in with new solder and the ends of the hollow beneath the ribs at the muzzle must be refilled with solder, as was previously described.
To determine the amount the barrels should be separated to cure the cross-firing is a difficult matter, but targeting the barrels beforehand to see where they cross-fire will also show the amount of cross-firing at distances within range of the gun. Laying the barrels, removed from the gun, on a support and training them upon a target, within shooting range, upon which a heavy cross line is drawn marked off with heavy vertical lines 4" to 6" apart, and looking through the barrels at this line will show where the barrels point. After the ribs are loosened, lay the barrel back on the support, in the same position, and use a wedge pushed between the barrels at the muzzle to separate them until the cross pointing is corrected within range of the gun. The distance between the barrels can then be measured and the flat steel piece of correct thickness to maintain this distance between the barrels is put in place.
Pump and autoloading shotguns sometimes throw loaded cartridges directly from the magazine out of the bottom of the action instead of passing them up to the barrel. This is due to failure of the magazine shell-stop, which may fail for a variety of causes. In an autoloading shotgun, if neither the shell-stop or its spring is broken or missing, the failure of the shell-stop is due to the breech bolt and the cartridge carrier (which lifts the cartridge from the magazine up to the barrel level) being out of time with each other so that the carrier is in the raised position instead of the lowered position when the breech bolt opens. This is caused by a broken or badly worn carrier tip, or dog as it is sometimes called. It may also be caused by breakage of the carrier tip spring. The remedy is, of course, a new part.
When a pump-type shotgun throws the loaded cartridges out at the bottom the cause may be the same as that mentioned for the autoloading gun, but is usually the failure of the shell-stop itself. In some of the cheaper shotguns of the pump-type this shell-stop is merely a piece of spring-steel, fastened to the side of the receiver, inside, with a bend in it so that its front end touches the head of the rear cartridge in the magazine, holding it in place until this piece of spring-steel is pushed aside, into a recess in the receiver, by the closing of the breech-block. This bending back and forth of this spring-steel shell-stop often results in it losing its spring, due to the fact that it is tempered a little too soft, and staying in its recess in the receiver wall instead of leaping forth at the time the breechblock opens to hold the next cartridge from sliding back out of the magazine. Remedy is to rebend and retemper the shell-stop after first hardening it when it is rebent to its proper curve.
This same spring-steel shell-stop has another trouble and that is that its front edge is sometimes too sharp and it catches on the indented ring on the head of a cartridge. This ring is rather close to the edge on some cartridges and in this case if the sharp edge of the shell-stop catches in it, it prevents the stop from moving far enough across the head of the cartridge to hold it well. As cartridges have a rather loose fit in the magazine tube, there may be play enough of the cartridge in the magazine tube to allow the shell-stop to slip off the head of the cartridge when the action is operated. The remedy, in this case, is to oil-stone the edge of the cartridge stop at its front end, so that it slides easily over this indented ring in the head of the cartridge.
Shell-stops of other types than the spring device described above may sometimes give trouble from the same cause of having too sharp an edge, but this seldom occurs, and a failure on their part in a pump shotgun is usually due to breakage or extreme wear. The remedy is to replace the stop with a new one, although spring-operated shell-stops such as on the model '97
Winchester sometimes become so dirty through neglect that the springs fail to operate, when the remedy is a thorough cleaning of stop, spring and recess in the rcceivcr wall.
A firing-pin nose will sometimes break off and wedge in the face of the breech-block, and when this happens the gun fires as the breech-block closes and if it is an autoloading model it will continue to fire until it is empty, so if a gun fires upon closing the breech-block, look for a broken firing-pin at once. Hammer-notches may break or wear so that the sear does not hold the hammer back upon closure of the breech and this will also cause the gun to fire, so check this point too in case this trouble develops.
I once had a 20-gauge Remington pump shotgun stump me for two hours, because part of the time the trigger could not be pulled while the rest of the time that trigger had a normal pull. I took the trigger mechanism apart at least ten times and finally discovered a small piece of copper, from a pierced primer, rolling around in the trigger mechanism. Part of the time it would get under the forward extension of the trigger, so that the trigger could not be pulled, and then it would roll out of there and back into the hollow in the grip of the butt-stock, out of the way of everything. The first nine times I took the trigger mechanism apart, it was back in that hollow in the grip, but the tenth time it didn't get back that far and I saw it. After removing it the gun worked perfectly, so in case of action jams where all parts look normal, hunt for loose pieces of foreign material in the mechanism.
Extraction trouble in a pump or autoloading shotgun is usually due to wear of the extractor hook. If the wear is slight, slightly sharpening the hook with a file and increasing the angle of the hook a small amount will correct it, but a new extractor is the best remedy. Faulty extraction is sometimes due to the ammunition used, the case rim being too narrow, or having too much slope on the front side of the rim. This trouble happens more often with cheap ammunition than with the standard article, for one reason for the cheapness of the ammunition is very apt to be far less strict inspection standards at the factory.
Dirt under the extractor seldom bothers a shotgun, as there is room for considerable of it in the notch of the extractor, but it is well to clean the notch occasionally. A broken spring can be the cause of poor extraction, but as these are coil-springs they seldom break.
A fired case sometimes remains in the extractor hook instead of being ejected, so that it prevents a new cartridge rising to the barrel, whereupon the fired case is returned to the chamber. A broken ejector spring or an ejector jammed with dirt will cause this, or if the ejector is a long spring fastened in the top of the receiver, the weakening of this spring may cause the trouble. In guns with an ejector of this type, cartridges with an oversize rim will not eject from the breech-bolt. A different brand of ammunition generally corrects the trouble in such cases.
Autoloading shotguns have a fibre or composition pad fastened in the rear end of the receiver or in the rear end of the breech-bolt, so that the metal breech-bolt does not strike on the metal receiver wall. Do not neglect this pad, replace it when necessary, for if it is missing and the breech-bolt pounds against the receiver wall it causes crystallization of the operating rod or other parts of the breech-bolt mechanism and may crack the receiver.
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There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.