Advanced Rifle Marksmanship Phase IV of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on all soldiers understanding common firing principles, being proficient marksmen, and being confident in applying their firing skills in combat. During preliminary marksmanship instruction, instructors-trainers emphasize initial learning by reviewing, reinforcing, and practicing the basics. This chapter concentrates on advanced techniques and procedures the soldier will need to participate in...

Basic Program Implementation

Knowledgeable instructors or cadre are the key to marksmanship performance. All commanders must be aware of maintaining expertise in marksmanship instruction training. a. Instructor-Trainer Selection. Institutional and unit instructor-trainers are selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship be proficient in applying these fundamentals know the importance of marksmanship training and have a competent and...

Chapter Troubleshooting And Destruction

Destruction CHAPTER 4. PRELIMINARY RIFLE INSTRUCTION (PHASE I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) Section I. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training . 4-1 4-2. Cycles of 4-3. Modes of 4-4. Peer Section II. Marksmanship Fundamentals 4-5. The Four 4-6. Firing 4-7. Training Devices and Section III. Marksmanship Fundamentals 4-8. 4-9. Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 (PHASE II of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) 5-1. Grouping 5-2. Zeroing 5-3. Known-Distance Range (With or...

Commanders Evaluation Guide

Through the active and aggressive leadership of the chain of command, a perpetual base of expertise is established and maintained. The unit's esprit de corps is significantly raised through the trainers' desire to improve and demonstrate they are the best. The goal of a progressive train-the-trainer program is to achieve a high state of combat readiness. The following is an example of a commander's evaluation guide. Commanders can use this guide not only to assess their unit's marksmanship...

Conduct Of Fieldfire Range

The field-fire ranges consist of F-type silhouettes at 75 meters and E-type silhouettes at 175 and 300 meters. a. The field-fire range is fired from the supported firing position and the prone unsupported firing position. Initial training starts with single exposed targets and increased time for target exposures (Field Fire I). As soldiers become proficient, multiple target engagements are introduced with shorter exposure times (Field Fire II). NOTE There are two types of electronic pop-up...

Contents

INTRODUCTION AND TRAINING STRATEGY Section I. Training 1-1. 1 -2. Training 1 -3. Training Section II. Marksmanship Training 1-4. Mission-Essential 1-5. Training 1-6. Basic Program 1-7. Training the 1-8. Duties of the 1-9. Trainer Certification 1-10. Qualification 1-11. Unit Live-Fire 1-12. Commander's Evaluation CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERISTICS, AMMUNITION, AND ACCESSORIES 2-3. Rail Grabbers and MILES Training 2-4. Backup Iron 2-5. M68, Close-Combat 2-6. AN PAQ-4B C Infrared Aiming 2-7. AN...

Danger

AVOID DIRECT EXPOSURE TO THE BEAM. 2. DO NOT STARE INTO THE INFRARED LASER BEAM WITH THE NAKED EYE OR THROUGH BINOCULARS OR TELESCOPES. 3. DO NOT POINT THE INFRARED LASER BEAM AT MIRROR-LIKE SURFACES OR OTHER INDIVIDUALS' EYES. 4. EYE-SAFE DISTANCE IN TRAINING MODE IS BEYOND 25 METERS IN DUAL LO MODE AND IN TACTICAL MODE IS BEYOND 220 METERS. 5. EYE DAMAGE CAN OCCUR IF CARELESS HANDLING OF THE LASER OCCURS. IN TRAINING MODE THERE'S A 25-METER DANGER AREA IN DUAL LO...

Do Not Store The Anpaqbc With Batteries Installed

(a) Select the proper 10-meter boresight target for the weapon AN PAQ-4B C configuration and, with the help of an assistant, place the boresight target 10 meters in front of the weapon. (b) Install the borelight filter and turn the AN PAQ-4B C on. Align the 10-meter boresight target with the visible laser of the borelight. (c) Adjust the adjusters on the AN PAQ-4B C until the infrared laser is centered on the crosshair located on the 10-meter boresight target. NOTES 1. The boresight target and...

Duties Of The Instructortrainer

The instructor-trainer helps the firer master the fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. He ensures that the firer consistently applies what he has learned. Then, with practice, the firer soon acquires good firing skills. When training the beginner, the instructor-trainer could confront problems such as fear, nervousness, forgetfulness, failure to understand, and a lack of coordination or determination. An expert firer is often unaware that arrogance and carelessness complicate problems. With all...

Fieldfire Standards

Field Fire I and II are part of the continued progression in the development of combat shooting skills. This begins the soldier's critical transition from unstressed firing at single known distance targets during downrange feedback, to targets at various ranges for short exposures. It also requires the soldier to practice and refine those skills that have been previously taught. This section introduces the need and techniques for scanning the range for targets, and quick accurate firing. a....

Figure Example of a zeroing mark

Advanced Riflemarksmanship

(5) Rotate the borelight until the battery compartment is facing upward and the adjusters are on the bottom (Figure 8-3). This position of the borelight, and where the visible laser is pointing, is identified as the start point. (6) Rotate the borelight until the battery compartment is down and the adjusters are on top to allow for easy access to the adjusters and help with communication and stabilization of the weapon (Figure 8-4). This position of the borelight, and where the visible laser is...

Figure Field Fire I firing tables

(1) Firing table 1, consisting of 18 targets, helps the firer practice shooting skills and develop a sense of timing and a rhythm required to make the transition from KD to field fire. This builds confidence prior to firing the exercises in firing tables 2 and 3, and identifies soldiers who are having difficulty and need reinforcement. (2) Every firer is given 54 rounds of 5.56-ball ammunition with 18 rounds loaded into each of three separate magazines (one magazine per firing table). During...

Figure Field Fire II firing tables

(1) Firing table 1, consisting of 10 targets, helps the firer practice shooting skills and develop a sense of timing and a rhythm required to make the transition from single timed targets to multiple or single timed fleeting combat targets. This builds confidence prior to firing the exercises in firing tables 2 and 3, and identifies soldiers who are having difficulty and need reinforcement. (2) Every firer is given 54 rounds of 5.56-ball ammunition with 10 rounds loaded into one magazine (for...

Figure M closecombat optic training program

Soldiers must qualify on their assigned weapons during daylight conditions as outlined in this manual. The integrated act of firing with the M68 is identical to the iron sights except for the change in sight picture. The M68 training strategy is the same as the iron sight training strategy. b. Conduct of Training. All procedures for the M68 are the same as with standard iron sights. The M68 equipment training should familiarize the soldier with the proper operation and...

Figure Rapid semiautomatic fire training program

When a soldier uses rapid semiautomatic fire properly, he sacrifices some accuracy to deliver a greater volume of effective fire to hit more targets. It is surprising how devastatingly accurate rapid fire can be. At ranges beyond 25 meters, rapid semiautomatic fire is superior to automatic fire in all measures (shots per target, trigger pulls per hit, and even time to hit). The decrease in accuracy when firing faster is reduced with proper training and repeated...

If the TWS is operated with the eyecup removed light emitting from the eyepiece may be visible to the enemys night

Practice qualification with the TWS is the same as day practice qualification with iron sights. Dry fire is done to allow the soldiers to make adjustments to the TWS. Every other firing lane should be used so that the soldier engages only the targets in his lane. (5) Record Qualification. Record qualification with the TWS is the same as day record qualification with iron sights. NOTES 1. Record qualification with the TWS can be done day and or night. Regardless of...

Instructional Intent

Reinforce preliminary marksmanship instruction (PMI) by performing the integrated act of shooting, and shoot two consecutive shot groups within a 4-cm circle at 25 meters. Special Instructions Ensure M16A1 rear sight is set on the aperture marked L. Ensure proper rear sight setting to zero (M16A2 3 8 3+1, M16A4 6 3+2, M4 6 3). Ensure the rear sight aperture is set on 300+1, not 800+1. Ensure small aperture is being used. Enforce proper and accurate shot group marking. Name is clearly marked on...

Introduction And Training Strategy

An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority, emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers. This chapter provides a proven rifle marksmanship training strategy as guidance in establishing and conducting an effective training program. The strategy consists of the progressive individual training periods taught during initial entry training (IET). It progresses into advanced skills and concludes with advanced reading material. Refresher training need only be conducted on...

Marksmanship Fundamentals I Period hours Instructional Intent

Reinforce BRM 1 and train the four fundamentals, with hands-on training, through dry firing to standard during circuit training with an M16- M4-series weapon. Teach range and safety procedures. Observables Live-fire range procedures replicated and enforced. (IAW local SOP) Equipment fitted properly to maximize training. (IAW local SOP) Ensure all dry firing is well-aimed fire using 25m zero targets. Ensure peer coaching is being emphasized IAW this manual. Ensure the four fundamentals are being...

Mission Of The Squad Designated Marksman

The primary mission of the SDM is to deploy as a member of the rifle squad. The SDM is a vital member of his individual squad and not a squad sniper. He fires and maneuvers with his squad and performs all the duties of the standard rifleman. The SDM has neither the equipment nor training to operate individually or in a small team to engage targets at extended ranges with precision fires. The secondary mission of the SDM is to engage key targets from 300 to 500 meters with effective, well-aimed...

Notes

Ensure weapon is cleared and that no ammunition is loaded prior to training. Ensure weapon is zeroed prior to training. Ensure the soldier is able to consistently apply the fundamentals of marksmanship. (1) Borelight Exercise. If the borelight is not available, the target-box exercise will be used. The borelight dry-fire exercise will provide continuous evaluation of the soldier throughout the integrated act of firing. (a) To start the exercise, a 25-meter zero target is attached to a flat...

Practice Record Fire Standards

Accurate performance data are critical. The firer's score is recorded using the practice record fire scorecard, or automated by using a computer printout provided on the automated range. Based on the data recorded, an after-action review can be performed by range and firing position to discuss firing performance. A firer who fails to qualify on his first try should refire the practice record fire range after his problem has been diagnosed and remedial training provided. The following is a...

Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction Phase I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

An infantryman's basic battlefield tool is his weapon. To effectively employ his weapon, marksmanship must be masteredfrom the basics of rifle marksmanship to the advanced stages of target engagement. This will greatly enhance the infantryman's capability to close with and destroy the enemy. Understanding the operation and functions of any machine is vital to becoming an expert with that machine. The same theory applies to rifle marksmanship. Commanders must keep this in mind when setting up a...

Rapid Semiautomatic Fire

The most important firing technique during modern, fast moving combat is rapid semiautomatic fire. Rapid-fire techniques are the key to hitting the short exposure, multiple, or moving targets described previously. If properly applied, rapid semiautomatic fire delivers a large volume of effective fire into a target area. The soldier intentionally fires a quick series of shots into the target area to assure a high probability of a hit. (Figure 7-10, page 7-8 shows the current training program for...

Section I Training Overview

This section details the effective and proven method of training the soldier in preliminary rifle marksmanship. The following marksmanship training guide contains the current tasks that are trained in basic rifle marksmanship programs, during basic combat training at Army training centers (ATCs), and during infantry one-station unit training (OSUT). It provides a basis for structuring unit sustainment programs. The unit normally performs a diagnostic test of the tasks and only conducts training...

Section Ii Combat Fire Techniques

The test of a soldier's training is applying the fundamentals of marksmanship and firing skills in combat. The marksmanship skills mastered during training, practice, and record fire exercises must be applied to many combat situations (attack, assault, ambush, UO). Although these situations present problems, only two modifications of the basic techniques and fundamentals are necessary changes to the rate of fire and alterations in weapon-target alignment. The necessary changes are significant...

Section Ii Fieldfire Training Single Timed Targets and Multiple Timed Targets

Field-fire training provides the transition from unstressed slow firing at known-distance or feedback targets to engaging pop-up silhouettes from 50 to 300 meters. Two basic types of field-firing exercises are single-target and multiple-target engagements, which use 75-, 175-, and 300-meter targets. Once the soldier has developed the unstressed firing skills necessary to hit single KD targets, he must learn to quickly detect and engage combat-type targets at various ranges. Pop-up targets are...

Section Iii Record Qualification

Qualification ratings and first-time GO rates are important during record fire, if properly used. They provide goals for the soldier and aid the commander in identifying the quality of his training. This should be considered in the assignment of priorities, instructor personnel, and obtaining valuable training resources. The objective of record firing is to access and confirm the individual proficiency of firers and the effectiveness of the training program. Although the soldier receives a...

Section V Moving Target Engagement

In combat situations, enemy soldiers do not stand still. The enemy moves by rushes from one covered or concealed position to another. While making the rush, the enemy soldier presents a rapidly moving target. However, for a brief time as he begins, movement is slow since many steps are needed to gain speed. Many steps are needed to slow down at the new position. A moving target is open to aimed fire both times. (Figure 7-27 shows the current training program for moving target engagement...

Section Vii Squad Designated Marksman Training

With the advances made in computer technology in today's world, smart weapons systems are constantly being developed that are increasingly more accurate and able to engage targets at much longer ranges. Conversely, today's combat soldier is trained to engage targets only out to 300 meters. This 300-meter limit is well short of the weapon ammunition combination's capability. Snipers engage targets at 600 meters and beyond. The squad designated marksman (SDM) will be able to engage targets in the...

Squad Designated Marksman Program

The SDM program will provide the squad with a designated marksman that has been trained to engage targets from 300 to 500 meters. He will operate and maneuver as a rifleman, but will have the added responsibility of engaging targets with effective, well-aimed fires out to 500 meters. He can also be used to help direct the fires of other squad members into enemy positions. Due to the increased skill level required for his position, the SDM must maintain a high level of proficiency through...

The instructor should ensure that all persons entering the training room are aware that laser radiation is present

Each simulated weapon has the same appearance as a fully functioning weapon, with the exception of the trainer-peculiar umbilical cable. Under certain circumstances, especially in the subdued light of a training room, it is possible to mistake a live firearm for a simulated weapon. This situation could create the potential for personal injury or damage to property. To avoid confusion, neither live nor blank ammunition, nor any live weapons, should be allowed in the training...

Training Assessment

To conduct an effective marksmanship program, the unit commander must determine the current marksmanship proficiency of all assigned personnel. To check the effectiveness of a unit's marksmanship program, constant evaluation is required. Observing and accurately recording performance reveals the status of rifle and magazine maintenance, the quality of the rifle's zero, and the ability of each soldier to hit targets. This also allows the commander to identify soldiers who need special assistance...

Training With Artificial Illumination

The soldier should be able to fire his weapon effectively in total darkness, in bright sunlight, and under all conditions between these two extremes. Provide a variety of night and limited visibility conditions when marksmanship training is scheduled. The battlefield may be illuminated by ground flares, hand held flares, M203 flares, mortar and artillery illumination, aerial flares, searchlights, exploding rounds, burning vehicles, and so forth. The battlefield may be obscured by smoke, fog,...

Warning

M16a1 Malfunction

A failure to extract is considered an extremely serious malfunction, requiring the use of tools to clear. A live round could be left in the chamber and accidentally discharged. If a second live round is fed into the primer of the chambered live round, the rifle could explode and cause personal injury. This malfunction must be properly identified and reported. Failures to eject should not be reported as extraction failures. (1) Probable Cause. Short recoil cycles and fouled or corroded rifle...

Figure Practice record fire

During Practice Record Fire I and II, each firer will receive 40 target exposures at ranges from 50 to 300 meters and 40 rounds of 5.56-mm ammunition. Twenty rounds will be fired from the foxhole supported and twenty rounds will be fired from the prone unsupported firing positions. Each soldier must hit a minimum of 23 out of 40 target exposures. The soldier must thoroughly understand and apply the fundamentals of marksmanship so that he can accurately detect and engage combat...

Knowndistance Range With Or Without Lomah

This paragraph provides guidelines for the instructor-trainer to conduct a known-distance (KD) range and apply the effects of wind and gravity (Figure 5-20). The three types of KD ranges discussed here are the standard KD range, the KD record fire range, and the modified field-fire range. NOTE If the range is equipped with the location of misses and hits (LOMAH) system, a firing order will be used to operate the LOMAH throughout the period of instruction and will be fired last. When using...

Unassisted Night Fire Target Detection

Pictures Homemade Rifle Range Target

Trying to detect a target during the day is difficult enough but at night it becomes even more so. In order for an individual to see targets at night, he must apply the three principles of night vision. a. Dark Adaptation. This process conditions the eyes to see under low levels of illumination. The eyes of the average person take about 30 minutes to acquire 98 percent night vision in a completely darkened area. Moving from illuminated to darker areas will decrease night vision until the eyes...

Figure Automatic or burst fire training program

Effectiveness of Automatic or Burst Fire. Automatic or burst fire is inherently less accurate than semiautomatic fire. The first full-automatic shot fired may be on target, but recoil and a high-cyclic rate of fire often combine to place subsequent rounds far from the desired point of impact. Even controlled (three-round burst) automatic or burst fire may place only one round on the target. Because of these inaccuracies, it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of automatic or burst...

Table A Target ordering numbers continued

Calibre Pen Pistols

LOCATION OF MISS-AND-HIT (LOMAH) SYSTEM LOMAH is a range aid used during downrange feedback exercises. The device uses acoustical triangulation to compute the exact location of a supersonic bullet as it passes through a target. The bullet impact is displayed instantly on a video monitor at the firing line. Of more importance, it shows the location of a bullet miss, allowing the firer to make either a sight adjustment or a hold-off for subsequent shots. a. LOMAH, like other devices, is only...

Section I Target Detection

Target detection is the process of locating, marking, prioritizing, and determining the range to combat targets. For most soldiers, finding the target can be a greater problem than hitting it. Target detection must be conducted as part of individual training and tactical exercises and must be integrated into day and night live-fire exercises. (Refer to TC 25-8 for construction of a target detection range.) The ability to locate a combat target depends upon the observer's position, skill in...

Unit Livefire Exercises

Unit live-fire exercises are planned, prepared, and performed as outlined in the mission training plan for the infantry platoon and squad. The soldier performs marksmanship tasks under realistic combat conditions within the framework of these exercises. NOTE Table 1-1 shows training devices a commander may use to sustain weapons proficiency. (See Appendix A for details on these training devices.) The devices replicate, but are not intended to replace, live-fire exercises or qualifications....

Figure Record fire

Since all soldiers must fire the record fire course at least once a year for qualification, the record fire course can provide excellent firing performance evaluations. It also provides excellent diagnostic information for instructors-trainers who are concerned with scheduling training to overcome the most serious firing weaknesses. The standard course should be used for all soldiers. There are times when a qualification exercise must be conducted on an alternate course. (1) The...

Urban Operations Firing Positions

Gun Silencer Diagram For Pistol

Although the same principles of rifle marksmanship apply, the selection and use of firing positions during urban operations (UO) requires some special considerations. Firing from around corners could require the soldier to fire from the opposite shoulder to avoid exposing himself to enemy fire. a. The requirement for long-range observation can dictate that positions be occupied that are high above ground. Figure 7-6 shows a soldier firing over rooftops, exposing only the parts of his body...

Modified Automatic And Burst Fire Position

M16a1 Wound

Maximum use of available artificial support is necessary during automatic or burst fire. The rifle should be gripped more firmly and pulled into the shoulder more securely than when firing in the semiautomatic mode. This support and increased grip help offset the progressive displacement of weapon-target alignment caused by recoil. To provide maximum stability, prone and supported positions are best when firing the M16- M4-series weapon in the automatic or burst fire mode. (If the weapon is...

D m m x centimeters round this up to cm

Zeroed Target 300 Meters

One click of elevation on the front sight moves the strike of the bullet 10 centimeters at a range of 300 meters. (Tables 5-1 and 5-2 show the amount of change in elevation of the strike of the bullet at various ranges.) (3) Elevation Rear Sight. The elevation knob adjusts elevation 1. 1 inch for each click at 100 meters with each dot and each number representing one click of elevation. DISTANCE 1 CLICK WILL ADJUST THE POINT OF IMPACT Table 5-1. M16A2 3 and front sight post of an M16A4. Table...

Figure Quick fire training program

NOTE Quick fire will only be conducted by soldiers in basic training. Short-range marksmanship will be conducted at unit level. a. Effectiveness of Quick Fire. Quick-fire techniques are appropriate for soldiers, who are presented with close, suddenly appearing, surprise enemy targets or when close engagement is imminent. Fire may be delivered in the SEMIAUTO or AUTOMATIC BURST mode. For example, a point man in a patrol may carry the weapon on AUTOMATIC BURST. This may also be required when...

Figure ANPVS training program

Training strategy on the AN PVS-4 is much the same as aiming lights. The course of fire for the AN PVS-4 sight is the same scenario as with the aiming lasers with the same qualifications standards. b. Conduct of Training. This training should familiarize the soldier with the proper operation and characteristics of the AN PVS-4 in accordance with the TM. (1) Modified Fundamentals. The fundamentals are changed as follows Steady position. This fundamental slightly changes due to the...

Table Point of impact for MA with LLLSS

M16a1 Carbine With Burst

The M16A2 A3 rifle (Figure 2-4) features several improvements over the M16A1. It is designed to fire either semiautomatic or a three-round burst through the use of a selector lever (SAFE, SEMI, and BURST). The M16A3 has the same characteristics as the M16A2 with the exception of the selector lever (SAFE, SEMI and AUTO) this weapon fires full automatic. (1) Mechanically Zeroing the M16A2 A3. Mechanically zeroing the weapon (Figure 2-5) is only necessary when the weapon zero is questionable,...

Figure Backup iron sights training program

The BIS is adjusted for a 300-meter battlefield zero to provide backup in the event an optic or laser device fails to function. The BIS is zeroed on the M4 M4A1 target on the backside of the M16A2 zero targets (NSN 6920-01-395-2949). The 25-meter zeroing procedures are the same as for conventional rear sight assembly on the M16- M4-series weapons. b. Conduct of Training. All procedures for the BIS are the same as with standard iron sights. (1) Boresight the Iron Sights. (Optional.)...

Phase Iii Shortrange Marksmanship Qualification

Each soldier will conduct a blank-fire exercise under the same conditions as the actual qualification. Each soldier will have a coach to ensure that he is acquiring the target that the weapon remains on safe until time to engage the target and is then placed back on safe and that he maintains muzzle awareness throughout the exercise. If a soldier is having difficulty during the blank-fire exercise, he will not continue with the qualification and will be retrained. Soldiers should conduct SRM...

Range Determination

Range determination is the process of finding the distance between two points. In most situations, one of these points will be the soldier's own position. The other may be a target or prominent feature. The ability to accurately determine range is an important skill needed by the combat rifleman to accomplish his mission. Not only does the accurate determination of range affect his combat marksmanship proficiency, it is also required to report information and adjust artillery and mortar fire....

To be considered SAFE before disassembly cleaning inspecting transporting or storing the weapon must be cleared

Glock Exploded View

Point in a SAFE DIRECTION Place selector lever on SAFE. If weapon is not cocked, lever cannot be pointed toward SAFE. b. Remove the magazine by depressing the magazine catch button and pulling the magazine down. c. To lock bolt open, pull charging handle rearward. Press bottom of bolt catch and allow bolt to move forward until it engages bolt catch. Return charging handle to full forward position. If you haven't before, place selector lever on SAFE. d. Check receiver and chamber to ensure...

Figure A Multipurpose arcade combat simulator

The MACS was designed to enhance other training techniques and existing training aids and devices used to train and sustain marksmanship skills. It is not designed to replace live-fire training or to eliminate the need for knowledgeable instructors. The MACS provides additional practice for those units without access to adequate range facilities, or that have other resource constraints. The Weaponeer is an effective rifle marksmanship-training device that simulates the live firing of the...

C Phase Iiirange Estimation and Sight Manipulation to Meters

SDMs must use range estimation methods to determine distance between their position and the target. NOTES 1. Ensure weapon is cleared and that no ammunition is loaded prior to training. 2. Ensure weapon is zeroed prior to training. 3. Ensure the soldier knows how to adjust for wind and gravity. 4. Ensure the soldier can manipulate the rear sight for different ranges. (1) Range Estimation Training. The SDM can use several different methods to determine range to the target to include the...

Qualification Training

Although marksmanship is a continuous training requirement, units normally conduct a refresher program before qualification. Soldiers must be well rounded in marksmanship fundamentals and have preparatory marksmanship training before qualification. This applies to qualification for the entire unit or for newly assigned personnel. All trainers must understand that rifle marksmanship is not a series of exercises to be trained in a planned sequence. The unit must prepare for training byD Issuing...

Figure Marksmanship Fundamentals I training program

The four fundamentals IAW with this manual. Basic firing positions IAW with this manual. Range and safety procedures IAW with local standard operating procedures. Dominant eye training. IAW with this manual. Demonstrate the integrated act of shooting during dry fire exercises. M15A1 aiming card 6 consecutive alignments. (3 using side alignment and 3 using bottom up alignment.) Target box and paddle exercise at 25 meters. (6 consecutive within a 2-cm circle) Modified dime or washer exercise. (6...

Training Devices And Exercises

Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training when used with the appropriate training strategies. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain or practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with...

Downrange Feedback Phase II of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

This chapter contains guidelines for the instructor-trainer to conduct training on ranges that provide detailed feedback from the targets down range, such as bullet impact locations and shot group size. Primarily this chapter contains grouping and zeroing procedures and how to conduct the 3 types of known distance ranges. It also contains the instructional intent, special instructions, and subject areas that should be observed to ensure quality training. Downrange feedback provides precise...

Figure Artificial illumination training program

Nighttime Tracer Fire

When artificial illumination is used, the eyes lose most of their night adaptation and off-center vision is no longer useful. Aiming is accomplished as it is during the day. Artificial illumination allows the firer to use the iron sights as he does during the day using the 0-2 rear sight aperture. b. Engaging targets under artificial illumination allows for better target detection and long-range accuracy than the unassisted technique. When the light is gone, time must be spent in regaining...

Figure A Training arrangement supported firing position

Military Sniper Position Symbol

To use the Weaponeer in a mobile configuration, it must be shock mounted. The manufacturer's conceptual mobile training unit is shown in Figure A-16. The TSC, Fort Benning, Georgia, has adopted a mobile mounting stand for supporting the Weaponeer range assembly and computer console Figure A-17, page A-20 . CONTROL CONSOLE INSTRUCTOR STORAGE VIDEO TARGET CONTROL CONSOLE INSTRUCTOR STORAGE VIDEO TARGET

Figure Ammunition impact comparison

M855 Bullet Drop Table

3 The M16A2 rifle with its 1 7 twist fires both types ammunition with little difference in accuracy to a range of 500 meters. The M16A2 and its ammunition are more effective at ranges out to and beyond 500 meters due to a better stabilization of the round. 4 The two 10-round shot groups in Figure 5-33, A were fired by a skilled marksman at a distance of 274.2 meters using the same M16A1 rifle. The 25.4-centimeter shot group on the left was fired and zeroed with M193 ammunition. The 6-foot shot...

Figure Unassisted night fire training program

Rifling Cutter Head

UNASSISTED NIGHT FIRE TRAINING Trainers must consider the impact of limited visibility on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and combat firing skills. During limited visibility, a firer cannot generally use his sights in most situations and without artificial illumination the sights block his field of vision. These fundamentals and skills include a. Operation and Maintenance of the Weapon. Handling the weapon, performing operation and function checks,...

Phase Ii Target Discrimination Training

Target discrimination is the act of distinguishing between threat and nonthreat targets during SRC. During SRC, there is little or no margin for error. A shot at a noncombatant or friendly soldier, or slow inaccurate shots can all be disastrous. Target discrimination is an inescapable responsibility and must be stressed in all situations regardless of mission. It is essential that this training be aimed at instilling fire control and discipline in individual soldiers. The first priority is...

Nbc Dryfire And Livefire Exercises

Repeated dry-fire training and live-fire exercises are the most efficient means to prepare the soldier for successful target engagements at any range while in MOPP4 during MILES exercises and in live-fire training. The soldier must follow these procedures and applications to be combat effective in a NBC environment. a. NBC Dry-Fire Exercises. As with all marksmanship training, the soldier must start at the basics in order to become proficient at NBC fire. Modified fundamentals can be taught...

Chapter Advanced Rifle Marksmanship Phase Iv of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

Alternate Prone Firing 7-2. Kneeling Supported Firing 7-3. Kneeling Unsupported Firing 7-4. Standing Firing 7-5. Modified Supported Firing 7-6. Urban Operations Firing 7-7. Modified Automatic and Burst Fire Section II. Combat Fire 7-8. Rapid Semiautomatic 7-9. Automatic or Burst 7-10. Suppressive 7-11. Quick Section III. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical 7-12. MOPP Equipment Fire 7-13. NBC Dry-Fire and Live-Fire Section IV. Night Fire 7-14. Unassisted Night Fire...

Modes Of Fire

M16a2 Exploded View

The M16A3 and M4A1 rifles function in either the semiautomatic or automatic mode. The M16A2, M16A4, and M4 carbine function in either the semiautomatic or three-round burst mode. a. Semiautomatic Fire Mode M16- M4-series . The disconnector is a mechanism installed so the firer can fire single rounds. It is attached to the trigger and rotated forward by action of the disconnector spring. When the recoil of the bolt carrier cocks the hammer, the disconnector engages the lower hook of the hammer...

Squad Designated Marksman Skills Progression

The skills progression program for the SDM is based on the M16- M4-series weapons systems and 100 rounds per man ammunition requirement. The program will assess the soldier's ability to apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and train and assess the soldier in several key areas in which he must be proficient to successfully perform his mission. These areas include basic ballistics, mechanical elevation and windage adjustments, elevation and windage hold-off adjusted aiming points , and range...

Figure A Mobile mounting stand

Est Qualification For

Diagnosis of firing problems is the main purpose of the Weaponeer. The following seven-step program is recommended as a guide. Depending on the extent of the firer's problems and time constraints, the number of shots may be increased. Tell the soldier to assume a good firing position, aim at a target, and hold steady supported and prone unsupported positions . Visually check the firer's firing position and correct any gross errors. Observe the video screen. If...

Training Strategy

Abn Machine Gun Repeating Weapons

Training strategy is the overall concept for integrating resources into a program to train the individual and collective skills needed to perform a unit's wartime mission. Training strategies for basic rifle marksmanship are implemented in TRADOC institutions IET, Noncommissioned Officers Education System NCOES , Infantry Officer Basic Course IOBC and in units. The overall training strategy is multifaceted and includes supporting strategies that use resources such as publications, ranges,...

Singlelead Rule For Moving Targets

Leads For Moving Targets

For the firer to apply precise lead rules he must accurately estimate speed, angle, and range to the target during the enemy soldier's brief exposure. The single-lead rule place the trailing edge of the front sight post at target center places effective fire on most high-priority combat targets. At 100 meters, the rule begins to break down for targets moving at slight and large angles. a. Lead Requirements. To effectively engage moving targets on the battlefield, soldiers must understand lead...

Figure Zeroing procedures

Proper Aiming Rifle Sights

The purpose of battlesight zeroing is to align the sights with the weapon's barrel given standard issue ammunition. When this is accomplished correctly, the point of aim and point of impact are the same at a given range such as 250 meters for the M16A1 and 300 meters for the M16A2 A3 A4 and M4-series weapons. This sight setting provides the highest hit probability for most combat targets with minimum adjustment to the aiming point. 1 When standard zeroing procedures are followed, a properly...

Standing Firing Position

Marksmanship Images

To assume the standing firing position, the soldier faces his target, executes a facing movement to his firing side, and spreads his feet a comfortable distance apart Figure 7-4 . With his firing hand on the pistol grip and his nonfiring hand on either the upper handguard or the bottom of the magazine, the soldier places the butt of the rifle in the pocket formed by his firing shoulder so the sights are level with his eyes. The weight of the rifle is supported by the firing shoulder pocket and...

Figure NBC fire training program

M16a1 Rifle Characteristics

Firing weapons is only part of overall NBC training. Soldiers must first be familiar with NBC equipment, its use, and proper wear before they progress to learning the techniques of MOPP firing. Trainers must consider the impact of MOPP equipment hood or mask, gloves, overgarments on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and combat firing skills. a. Operation and Function Modification. Handling the rifle, performing operation and function checks, loading and...

Peer Coaching

Hft Prone Position

Peer coaching is using two soldiers of equal firing proficiency and experience to assist coach each other during marksmanship training. Some problems exist with peer coaching. If the new soldier does not have adequate guidance, a blind-leading-the-blind situation results, which can lead to negative training and safety violations. However, when adequate instruction is provided, peer coaching can be helpful even in the IET environment. Since all soldiers in units have completed BRM, peer coaching...

Mechanical Training

This training program Figure 4-1 introduces the soldiers to BRM and teaches them how to maintain, operate, and correct malfunctions on an M16- M4-series weapon. It also teaches peer coaching responsibilities and sight manipulation while emphasizing safety. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training Period 1 4 hours Instructional Intent Introduce the soldiers to BRM and teach them how to maintain, operate and correct malfunctions on a M16- M4-series weapon. Teach peer...

Phase I Basic Rifle Marksmanship BRM Preliminary Rifle Instruction PRI

Introduction to BRM and mechanical training 4 hours Disassembly and assembly Identify parts Function check Load unload magazine Ammunition types and care Load unload weapon Correct malfunctions SPORTS Adjust front and rear sights Eight cycles of function and trouble shooting Marksmanship Fundamentals I 6 hours The four fundamentals Basic firing positions Range and safety procedures Dominant eye training Demonstrate the integrated act of shooting during dry fire exercises Marksmanship...

Figure A M sighting device

M16a1 Rifle

5 Blank Firing Attachment BFA , M15A2 M23. The BFA Figure A-4 attaches to the muzzle of the M16- M4-series weapons. It is designed to keep sufficient gas in the barrel of the weapon to allow semiautomatic, automatic, or burst firing with blank ammunition M200 only . After firing 50 rounds, the attachment should be checked for a tight fit. Continuous blank firing results in a carbon buildup in the bore, gas tube, and carrier key. When this occurs, the cleaning procedures in TM 9-1005-249-10 or...

Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction

As with all other forms of marksmanship training, PMI must be conducted to establish a firm foundation on which to build. Soldiers must be taught, and must understand, the fundamentals of SRM described in paragraph 7-23. Blank fire drills are conducted to ensure a complete and through understanding of the fundamentals as well as to provide the trainers with valuable feedback as to the level of proficiency of each soldier. It is important during this training to emphasize basic force protection...

Figure A Engagement skills trainer

The EST 2000 matches leading edge technology with user requirements and is designed to meet the small-arms training requirements by providing a realistic training environment, targets, weapons effects, and challenging scenarios. b. Authorization. The EST 2000 is an Infantry School and TRADOC approved TADSS supported by PEO-STRI formerly STRICOM and has a life cycle support sustainment plan. c. Funding. The EST 2000 is a centrally-funded training simulator supported by the...

Conduct Of Shortrange Marksmanship Training

Short-range marksmanship requires individual infantrymen to be trained to standard in reflexive firing, target discrimination, and on all necessary BRM fundamentals prior to semi-annual qualification. An explanation of the base level proficiency requirements is provided with each course of fire. As a minimum, infantrymen should be qualified on their individual weapon within the previous six months. Shotgun and automatic firing is required for annual familiarization only. Reflexive MILES...

Table A Equipment data

Shotgun Recoil Comparison Table

Figure A-11 shows the Weaponeer in the standing supported firing position. The rifle, with the exception of smoke and cartridge ejection, operates normally, and has the same weight and balance as the standard weapon. An infrared aiming sensor simulates round trajectory and hit point to an accuracy of better than one-minute-of-angle. The recoil rod that attaches at the muzzle end of the rifle simulates recoil. Recoil is provided in both semiautomatic and automatic modes of fire,...

Figure ANPVS on the MAseries weapons

Rifle Marksmanship

M4 M4-MWS-Series Weapons Figure 2-39 . The Picatinny rail grabber with a mounting adapter 1 on the bottom of the AN PVS-4 is aligned with a notch on the integrated rail 2 of the M4 M4-MWS-series weapons ensuring the AN PVS-4 is positioned to accommodate an effective firing position once the eyecup is depressed. The AN PVS-4 will not retain zero if the rail grabber extends beyond the end of the integrated rail when mounted. Tighten the torque-limiting knob clockwise until it clicks twice....

The Four Fundamentals

M15a1 Aiming Card

The soldier must understand and apply the four key fundamentals before he approaches the firing line. He must establish a steady position allowing observation of the target. He must aim the rifle at the target by aligning the sight system, and fire the rifle without disturbing this alignment by improper breathing or during trigger squeeze. These skills are known collectively as the four fundamentals. Applying these four fundamentals rapidly and consistently is the integrated act of firing. a....

Modified Supported Firing Position

M16a1 Naming The Parts

Once the basic firing skills have been mastered during initial training, the soldier should be encouraged to modify positions, to take advantage of available cover, to use anything that helps to steady the rifle, or to make any change that allows him to hit more combat targets. The modified prone firing position uses sandbags to support the handguard and frees the nonfiling hand to be used on any part of the rifle to hold it steady Figure 7-5 . Figure 7-5. Modified supported firing position....

Advanced Optics Lasers And Iron Sights Phase V of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

Basic rifle marksmanship taught effective engagement of the enemy with the basic rifle or carbine using iron sights to engage targets primarily during the day. Advanced rifle marksmanship added other marksmanship situations that a combat soldier may encounter. This chapter discusses how to enhance marksmanship skills, with proper training, using the Army's newest optics and lasers to ensure the soldier can fight as well at night as he can during the day. 8-1. TRAINING STRATEGIES AND...

Section I Advanced Firing Positions

After mastering the four marksmanship fundamentals in the two basic firing positions, the next step is to master the four fundamentals while firing from a variety of advanced firing positions. The following paragraphs demonstrate the most common firing positions a soldier may be required to fire from. The firer's position may change but the application of the remaining three fundamentals applied from a stable position never changes. Ultimately, any firing position that aids the firer in...

Section Vi Shortrange Marksmanship Training

Short-range marksmanship SRM training provides the individual soldier with the ability to quickly and effectively engage targets at ranges less than 50 meters. A soldier's ability to successfully identify, discriminate, and engage targets during short-range combat SRC is essential for soldier survival and mission accomplishment. Although normally associated with UO, SRM techniques are also used during operations in restrictive terrain such as clearing a trench line, the final assault across an...

Figure A The MA aiming card NSN

Firearms Prone

The Riddle sighting device Figure A-2 indicates if the soldier understands the aiming process while using the rifle. It is a small plastic plate with a magnet and a drawing of an E-type silhouette target. A two-man team is required for its use. The soldier assumes a supported or prone firing position. The assistant places the Riddle device on the front sight assembly and adjusts the plastic plate at the direction of the firer until he reports the proper sight picture....

Figure Suppressive fire training program

M16a1 Rifle

Many soldiers have difficulty delivering effective suppressive fire when they cannot see a definite target. They must fire at likely locations or in a general area where the enemy is known to exist. Even though definite targets cannot be seen, most suppressive fire should be well aimed. Figure 7-13 shows a landscape target suitable for suppressive fire training. When this type of target is used, trainers must develop a firing program to include areas of engagement and...

Alternate Prone Firing Position

This position is an alternative to both prone supported and unsupported firing positions Figure 7-1 . The firer can assume a comfortable position while maintaining the same relationship between his body and the axis of the rifle. This position relaxes the stomach muscles and allows the firer to breathe naturally. Figure 7-1. Alternate prone firing position. Figure 7-1. Alternate prone firing position.

M Closecombat Optic

Meter Zero Target

The M68, close-combat optic CCO is a reflex nontelescopic sight Figure 2-23 . It uses a red dot aiming point and is designed for the two-eyes-open method of sighting. The M68 can be shot with one eye open as well. The dot follows the horizontal and vertical movement of the gunner's eye while remaining fixed on the target. A one-time retightening of the torque-limiting knob is recommended after the first three rounds are fired to fully seat the M68. No centering or focusing is required beyond 50...

Malfunctions

M16a1 Malfunction

Malfunctions are caused by procedural or mechanical failures of the rifle, magazine, or ammunition. Pre-firing checks and serviceability inspections identify potential problems before they become malfunctions. This paragraph describes the primary categories of malfunctions. a. Failure to Feed, Chamber, or Lock. A malfunction can occur when loading the rifle or during the cycle of operation. Once the magazine has been loaded into the rifle, the forward movement of the bolt carrier group could...

Figure Backup iron sight

Rifle Marksmanship

Once installed and zeroed, the BIS should be left in the stowed position for best durability and minimal interference unless its use is eminent Figure 2-22 . It provides a sighting capability when all other accessories have been removed, and it can be used to establish approximate zeros for other sighting components without requiring live fire. Zeros established using this method are only effective to approximately 20 meters and should be refined by a live-fire zero. Figure 2-22. BIS in the...

Figure A Weaponeer printouts

Meter Bore Sight Targets

In BRM, the Weaponeer is used to evaluate the firer's ability to apply the four fundamentals. It is used throughout the program to help diagnose and remediate problems. In the unit, the Weaponeer should be used much like it is used in BRM. Concurrent use of the Weaponeer at the rifle range provides valuable remedial training. 1 The preferred training configuration for the Weaponeer is shown in Figure A-14 on page A-18. One trainer operates the system while three to six...

Effects Of Wind And Gravity

Bullet Wind Effect Constants

Marksmanship instructors-trainers should know how the effects of wind and gravity influence the flight of the bullet, and soldiers should know how to compensate for such bullet displacement. This instruction is appropriate for all marksmanship training and concurrent training. a. Effects of Gravity. Gases created by gunpowder push each round out the end of the barrel. The barrel must be elevated slightly to allow the round to travel farther, creating an arc. The round will travel straight until...

Anpaqbc Infrared Aiming Light

Swir Aiming And Illumination

The AN PAQ-4B C infrared aiming light Figure 2-27, page 2-18 projects an infrared laser beam that cannot be seen with the eye but can be seen with night vision devices. This aiming light works with the AN PVS-7-series goggles and the AN PVS-14. The AN PAQ-4B C mounts on various M16- M4-series weapons with mounting brackets or rail grabbers. Figure 2-27. AN PAQ-4B C infrared aiming light. Figure 2-27. AN PAQ-4B C infrared aiming light. a. M16A1 A2 A3 Rifle Figure 2-28 . The armorer must install...

Moving Target Techniques

Military Range Targets

The two primary techniques of engaging moving targets are tracking and trapping. a. Tracking is a more accurate technique of engaging targets by experienced firers. It involves establishing and maintaining an aiming point in relationship to the target and maintaining that sight picture moving with the target while squeezing the trigger. As the target moves, this technique puts the firer in position for a second shot if the first one misses. b. Trapping is the setting up of an aiming point...

Anpvs Night Vision Sight

Night Vision Operator Series Phono

The AN PVS-4 night vision sight is a portable, battery-operated electro-optical instrument used for observation and aimed fire of weapons at night Figure 2-37, page 2-24 . It amplifies reflected light, such as moonlight, starlight, and sky glow, so that the viewed scene becomes clearly visible to the operator. The AN PVS-4 does not emit visible or infrared light except from the eyepiece that can be detected by the enemy. It can be used on the M16A2 rifle, M4 carbine, and M4 modular weapon...

Ballistics

Internal Bullet Ballistics

Commanders and marksmanship trainers must understand some aspects of ballistics to teach the principles of zeroing and engagement of long-range targets. Ballistics is a science dealing with the motion and flight characteristics of projectiles. The study of ballistics in rifles is divided into three categories internal, external, and terminal. Internal ballistics concerns what happens to the bullet before it leaves the muzzle of the rifle. External ballistics deals with factors affecting the...