a. Concept of a Known-Distance Range. A KD range has three primary objectives: fire tight shot groups at a known distance, make sight adjustments at range (not an objective for IET soldiers) while experiencing the effects of wind and gravity, and marksmanship testing. (LOMAH, LMTS, EST, Weaponeer and MACS are training aids discussed in Appendix A that may be used to supplement or substitute this live-fire exercise.) The firing task on a KD range is an intermediate step toward the firing task of a combat soldier. The soldier is provided information concerning the precise hit-or-miss location of every bullet fired. KD firing is conducted with a single, clearly visible target at a known distance, and the soldier can establish a position that provides a natural point of aim on that single target.
(1) On the standard KD range, soldiers fire at the 100-, 200-, and 300-meter targets without any time restraints.
(2) On the KD record fire range, soldiers fire at the 100-, 200-, and 300-meter or yard targets with time restraints.
(3) On the modified field-fire range, soldiers fire at the 100-, 200-, and 300-meter targets on a standard 50- to 300- meter field-fire qualification range. If a qualification range is not available, this exercise may be shot on a standard 75- to 300-meter field-fire range. Targets and target frames must be set up to accommodate this training.
NOTE: On ranges that are built in yards instead of meters the same KD targets will be used. The difference is so small it does not need to be considered.
(4) The KD range does not require the soldier to detect targets, estimate range to targets, scan a sector of fire, respond to surprise targets, respond to short exposure targets, or engage multiple targets.
(5) An advantage of a KD range is the ability to see precisely where each bullet hits. To benefit from this training you must ensure the soldiers can clearly see the results of each firing, whether a group, single shot, or 10-round exercise.
b. KD Target Description. Downrange feedback training should include detailed explanations of the targets.
(1) The KD targets are large enough to capture all bullets fired. The standard E-type and F-type silhouettes can be used if the standard KD targets are not available.
(2) The 16-centimeter circle on the 100-meter targets, 32-centimeter circle on the 200-meter targets, and the 48-centimeter circle on the 300-meter targets equate to the 4-centimeter zero target at 25 meters. If the soldier's shot group falls within the 4-centimeter circle at 25 meters they will fall within the circle on the target being shot. If the round falls outside the circle the round will clearly miss the 300-meter target in Figure 5-21.
(3) The X is located in the bottom portion of the circle to show the firer where he must aim so his bullets will hit target center of mass when his rifle is zeroed.
(4) The grid system on the targets in Figure 5-21 equates to the 25-meter zero targets. For example, one click on the front sight post equals one square on the 25-meter zero target and also equals one square on the target being shot. Information similar to that on the zero target has been overprinted to assist in applying sight adjustments.
Figure 5-21. Downrange feedback targets.
c. Marking the KD Range Targets. When the initial shot group is fired, target spotters/markers (Figure 5-22, page 5-20) should be placed in each bullet hole, placing the white side on the silhouette and black side off the silhouette. This procedure ensures the firer can see where the rounds impacted. Instructors-trainers can observe the firer's performance and focus their attention on the soldiers having the greatest problems. Soldiers are motivated to fire better since their peers can observe their performance. On the second and subsequent shot groups, the target spotters/markers should be moved and placed in the holes of the new shot group. The old holes must be pasted, using black pastors on black and white pastors on white. Failure to paste all bullet holes makes it difficult to determine one shot group from another.
d. KD Shot-Grouping Analysis. Figure 5-23 shows two targets that were both shot with three individual rounds (A). On a pop-up target these two firing performances would provide the same information back to the firing line; each target was hit once and missed twice. Once the targets are properly marked with spotters on a KD range it becomes clear why only one round hit either target. The firer on the left is failing to properly apply the four fundamentals correctly, and the firer on the right needs to make an adjustment to his iron sights (assuming that wind was not a factor). The firer on the right would then triangulate the shot group and read the appropriate adjustments from the target. Figure 5-23 also shows another two targets that were both shot with three individual rounds (B). On a pop-up target these two firing performances would appear to be the same. Once properly marked with spotters on a KD range it is obvious that the firer on the left needs more training on the four fundamentals.
e. KD Zeroing. The 300-meter target can be used at 300 meters to confirm weapon zero or to refine the zero obtained on the 25-meter range. The zero on this target is more valid than the zero obtained on the 25-meter range when the wind is properly compensated for. Soldiers should fire two 5 round shot groups to confirm zero or three-round shot groups to refine their zero. The pit crews should spot targets after each shot group is fired. If there is more than a five mile-per-hour crosswind, KD zeroing should not be attempted.
NOTES: 1. M16A1. The unmarked aperture (short-range) is used on the M16A1 for refinement of zero at 300 meters. For target engagements beyond the 300-meter line, the long-range aperture (L) is used.
2. M16A2/3/4, M4, and M4A1 weapons. The unmarked aperture is used for zeroing and target engagement at all distances on the KD range. When engaging targets beyond 300 meters the windage knob should be adjusted to the range of the target. 400-meter targets are engaged on the setting 4 flush and 450-meter targets would be set on 4 plus two clicks.
3. Basic training soldiers will only zero on the 25-meter range.
f. Elevation and Windage Adjustments at Distance. The elevation and windage rule states that one click of elevation or windage moves the strike of the bullet a specific distance at a specific range. At a range of 25 meters, one click of windage moves the strike of the bullet .33 centimeters and one click of elevation on the front sight moves the strike of the bullet .83 centimeters. To compute the distance (D) one click of elevation (front sight) or windage moves the strike of a bullet at a given range (R), divide the range (expressed in meters) by 25, and multiply by either .33 centimeters for windage or .83 centimeters for elevation.
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