Target discrimination is the act of distinguishing between threat and nonthreat targets during SRC. During SRC, there is little or no margin for error. A shot at a noncombatant or friendly soldier, or slow inaccurate shots can all be disastrous. Target discrimination is an inescapable responsibility and must be stressed in all situations regardless of mission. It is essential that this training be aimed at instilling fire control and discipline in individual soldiers. The first priority is always the safety of the Infantryman.
a. Target Discrimination Targets. Target discrimination is best taught using two or more E-type silhouettes with bowling pins painted on each side of the silhouette (such as brown side and green side). The instructor calls out a color for the shooter to identify on the command "READY, UP" or at the "whistle blast." The shooter quickly scans all targets for the color and engages using a controlled pair. This is the standard that all Infantrymen train to. It will effectively train Infantrymen to accomplish missions under the expected ROE. The OPFOR will wear distinctive uniforms during force-on-force training, which will prepare Infantrymen to eliminate threats based on enemy uniforms and reduce the chances of an Infantryman hesitating and becoming a casualty. Using realistic targets displaying threat and nonthreat personnel is another variation.
(1) Alternative methods include using multiple E-type silhouettes with different painted shapes (squares, triangles, and circles). The instructor calls out a shape for the firers to identify. On the command "READY, UP," or at a whistle blast, the shooters quickly scan all three targets searching for the shape and engage using the controlled pair technique. This is repeated until one shape is mastered. Subsequently, a sequence of shapes are announced, and the firers engage accordingly.
(2) Another variation is to paint a series of 3-inch circles on the E-type silhouettes. The instructors call out which circle to engage (for example, top left) and firers react accordingly. Marksmanship is emphasized using this technique.
(3) Another technique for training is to use pop-up targets (electrical or pull targets).
(4) A good technique for teaching soldiers target discrimination is to have them focus on the target's hands. If a target is a threat, the first and most obvious indicator is a weapon in the target's hands. This is also the center of the uniform, which soldiers should focus on. The soldier must mentally take a "flash picture" of the entire target because an armed target could possibly be a fellow soldier or other friendly, which is why soldiers train on uniforms (green or brown silhouettes). This level of target discrimination should not be trained until soldiers are thoroughly proficient in basic SRC and SRM tasks.
b. Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length and each lane should be at least 5 meters wide. Each lane should have target holders and should be marked in a way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A coach/safety is assigned to each lane to observe and control the soldier's performance. The tower, lane safety, or senior instructor gives all firing commands.
c. Conduct of Training. Each soldier must complete a dry-fire exercise and a blank-fire exercise before moving on to the live-fire portion. (Table 7-3 will be used to score this exercise.) Regardless of the type of target used, the following method will be used to conduct training. The soldier will begin all engagements facing away from the target, which requires the soldier to identify and discriminate, and reinforces skills used during reflexive firing training. The soldier will be given a target description and, on the command "READY,"
begins to scan for the target. On cue ("Up," voice command, or whistle blast), the soldier will turn toward and engage the target.
(1) Instructors should vary commands and targets so that the soldier does not fall into a pattern. Intermixing "no fire" commands will add to realism.
(2) A soldier will be scored as a "NO GO" if he fails to engage a target or engages a target other than the one called for by the instructor. Soldiers will complete a blank fire validation on this task before live firing. Soldiers will also receive a "NO GO" if at any time their weapon is pointed at another soldier or they fail to keep their weapon on safe before acquiring and engaging the targets. The first priority is always the safety of the soldier.
(3) All soldiers must receive a "GO" on this task before SRM qualification. Targets must be scored and marked after each firing distance.
NOTE: Initial training and sustainment training may be conducted by changing the uniform in the standards statement.
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