LOMAH is a range aid used during downrange feedback exercises. The device uses acoustical triangulation to compute the exact location of a supersonic bullet as it passes through a target. The bullet impact is displayed instantly on a video monitor at the firing line. Of more importance, it shows the location of a bullet miss, allowing the firer to make either a sight adjustment or a hold-off for subsequent shots.
a. LOMAH, like other devices, is only an aid. Understanding the weapon and firing techniques, and having a coach/instructor are required when the soldier uses LOMAH.
b. LOMAH ranges have been fielded in USAREUR and Korea. In locations where known distance (KD) ranges are not available and restrictions prohibit walking downrange, LOMAH is a practical alternative to essential downrange feedback. Requests for LOMAH devices should be sent to: Commander, US Army Training Support Center, ATIC-DM, Fort Eustis, VA 23604.
A-3. CALIBER .22 RIMFIRE ADAPTER, M261
The caliber .22 rimfire adapter (RFA) can contribute to a unit's marksmanship program when 5.56-mm ammunition is not available or when ranges that allow firing 5.56-mm ammunition are not available. The RFA can be useful for marksmanship training such as night fire, quick fire, and assault fire. It is not recommended for primary marksmanship training.
a. Training Considerations. When service ammunition is in short supply, the RFA can be used to complement a unit's training program.
(1) Rifle Performance. The RFA/.22-caliber rimfire ammunition cannot replicate the exact ballistics of the 5.56-mm ammunition. Efforts to match RFAs with specific rifles can result in reasonable replication. Under ideal training conditions, the RFA should be used with dedicated rifles. Finding the right match of RFA and rifle can eliminate some variability. A trial-and-error technique can match RFAs to rifles, which results in good firing weapons. The RFA cannot be depended on to fire in the same place as 5.56-mm ammunition. It is not necessary for the soldier to use his own weapon during RFA training.
(2) Rifle Zero. The RFA will not usually group in the same location as 5.56-mm ammunition at 25 meters and cannot be used for weapon zero. It normally fires a slightly larger shot group than 5.56-mm ammunition. When a soldier uses an RFA in his rifle, he must be careful not to lose his 5.56-mm zero. This can be accomplished by using hold-off while firing .22-caliber ammunition or keeping a record of sight changes so the sights can be moved back. The .22-caliber round approximates the 5.56-mm trajectory out to 25 meters. The correct zeroing target or appropriate scaled-silhouette targets can be used for practice firing exercises at 15 meters (50 feet) or 25 meters.
b. Advantages and Disadvantages. If the RFA is used as a training aid, the advantages and disadvantages must be considered during training.
(1) Advantages. The .22-caliber ammunition is cheaper and, may be available in larger quantities than 5.56-mm ammunition. It can be fired on all approved indoor ranges and in other close-in ranges where 5.56-mm ammunition is prohibited. RFA training can be used to sustain marksmanship skills during periods when full caliber 5.56-mm ammunition training cannot be conducted.
(2) Disadvantages. Some negative training aspects exist because of differences in the weapon's functioning when using the RFA. These differences include the forward assist not working, and the bolt not locking to the rear after the last round is fired. More malfunctions can occur with the RFA than with 5.56-mm ammunition, and immediate-action procedures are different.
Short-range training ammunition (SRTA) is a plastic practice cartridge (M862) that enables a unit to conduct realistic firing training at shorter distances with reduced danger areas. The M862 has a maximum range of 250 meters. The blue plastic projectile reduces the risk of over-penetration and ricochet, which makes it ideal for urban operations training.
a. To fire the M862 SRTA from an M16-/M4-series weapon, the standard bolt and bolt carrier must be replaced by the M2 practice bolt. The M2 practice bolt consists of a bolt carrier, which is a fixed bolt. The practice bolt changes the weapon from a gas-operated action to a blow-back action that permits cyclic fire with the lower-powered M862.
b. Because of the design of the M2 practice bolt, standard 5.56-mm rounds cannot be fired from the weapon while it is installed. (See TM 9-6920-746-12&P for more information on the M862 SRTA and the M2 practice bolt.)
A-5. MULTIPURPOSE ARCADE COMBAT SIMULATOR
The U.S. Army developed the multipurpose arcade combat simulator (MACS) as an inexpensive marksmanship trainer (Figure A-10, page A-14).
a. The system consists of a Commodore 64 microcomputer, 13-inch color monitor, specially designed long-distance light pen, and mount that attaches to the M16A2 rifle. (Some versions use a permanent mount on a demilitarized rifle.) The system is activated by a program cartridge, which contains several training exercises.
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