Table of Contents

Spec Ops Shooting

Ultimate Firearms Training Guide

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Chapter 1. Introduction to Rifle Marksmanship

1001 Role of the Marine Rifleman 1-1

1002 Conditions Affecting Marksmanship in Combat 1-1

1003 Combat Mindset 1-1

Physical Preparation 1-2

Mental Preparation 1-2

Chapter 2. Introduction to the M16A2 Service Rifle

2001 Description 2-1

2002 Operational Controls 2-1

Selector Lever 2-1

Magazine Release Button 2-2

Charging Handle 2-2

Bolt Catch 2-3

2003 Cycle of Operation 2-3

Firing 2-3

Unlocking 2-3

Extracting 2-4

Ejecting 2-4

Cocking 2-4

Feeding 2-5

Chambering 2-5

Locking 2-5

2004 Ammunition 2-5

M193 Ball 2-6

M855 Ball 2-6

M196 and M856 Tracer 2-6

M199 Dummy 2-6

M200 Blank 2-6

2005 Preventive Maintenance 2-6

Main Group Disassembly 2-6

Magazine Disassembly 2-7

Cleaning 2-8

Inspection 2-9

Lubrication 2-9

Reassembly 2-9

2006 Function Check 2-10

2007 User Serviceability Inspection 2-10

2008 Field Maintenance 2-11

2009 Cleaning the Rifle in Various Conditions 2-11

Hot, Wet Tropical 2-11

Hot, Dry Desert 2-11

Arctic or Low Temperature 2-11

Heavy Rain and Fording 2-11

Chapter 3. Weapons Handling

3001 Safety Rules 3-1

3002 Weapons Condition 3-1

3003 Determining a Weapon's Condition (Chamber Check) 3-1

3004 Weapons Commands 3-2

Loading the Rifle 3-3

Making the Rifle Ready 3-3

Fire 3-3

Cease-Fire 3-3

Unloading the Rifle 3-3

Unloading and Showing the Rifle Clear 3-4

3005 Filling, Stowing, and Withdrawing Magazines 3-5

Filling the Magazine with Loose Rounds 3-5

Filling the Magazine Using a 10-round

Stripper Clip and Magazine Filler 3-5

Stowing Magazines 3-5

Withdrawing Magazines 3-6

3006 Reloading the Rifle 3-6

Principles of Reloading 3-6

Condition 1 Reload 3-7

Dry Reload 3-7

3007 Remedial Action 3-7

Observe for Indicators 3-7

Audible Pop or Reduced Recoil 3-8

3008 Weapons Carries 3-8

Tactical Carry 3-8

Alert Carry 3-9

Ready Carry 3-9

3009 Weapons Transports 3-10

Strong Side Sling Arms Transport (Muzzle Up) 3-10

Weak Side Sling Arms Transport (Muzzle Down) 3-10

Cross Body Sling Arms Transport 3-10

3010 Transferring the Rifle 3-11

Show Clear Transfer 3-11

Condition Unknown Transfer 3-11

3011 Clearing Barrel Procedures 3-11

Purpose of a Clearing Barrel 3-11

Procedures for "Load" 3-12

Procedures for "Make Ready" 3-12

Procedures for "Unload" 3-12

Procedures for "Unload and Show Clear" 3-12

Chapter 4. Fundamentals of Marksmanship

4001 Aiming 4-1

Sight Alignment 4-1

Sight Picture 4-1

Importance of Correct Sight Alignment 4-2

Factors Affecting Sight Alignment and Sight Picture 4-2

Acquiring and Maintaining Sight Alignment and Sight Picture 4-4

Size and Distance to the Target 4-4

4002 Breath Control 4-5

Breath Control During Long-range or Precision Fire (Slow Fire) 4-5

Breath Control During All Other Combat Situations 4-5

4003 Trigger Control 4-6

Grip 4-6

Trigger Finger Placement 4-6

Types of Trigger Control 4-6

Resetting the Trigger 4-6

4004 Follow-Through/Recovery 4-7

Follow-Through 4-7

Recovery 4-7

Chapter 5. Rifle Firing Positions

5001 Selecting a Firing Position 5-1

Stability 5-1

Mobility 5-1

Observation of the Enemy 5-1

5002 Types and Uses of the Rifle Web Sling 5-1

Hasty Sling 5-2

Loop Sling 5-3

5003 Factors Common to All Shooting Positions 5-4

Left Hand 5-4

Rifle Butt in the Pocket of the Shoulder 5-5

Grip of the Right Hand 5-6

Right Elbow 5-6

Stock Weld 5-6

Breathing 5-6

Muscular Tension/Relaxation 5-6

5004 Elements of a Good Shooting Position 5-7

Bone Support 5-7

Muscular Relaxation 5-7

Natural Point of Aim 5-7

5005 Prone Position 5-8

Application 5-8

Assuming the Prone Position 5-8

Straight Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling 5-9

Straight Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling 5-10

Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling 5-11

Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling 5-11

5006 Sitting Position 5-12

Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling 5-12

Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Loop Sling 5-13

Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling 5-13

Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling 5-14

Open Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling 5-14

Open Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling 5-15

5007 Kneeling Position 5-15

Description 5-15

Assuming the Kneeling Position 5-15

High Kneeling Position with the Hasty Sling 5-16

High Kneeling Position with the Loop Sling 5-17

Medium Kneeling Position 5-17

Low Kneeling Position 5-18

5008 Standing Position 5-18

Description 5-18

Standing Position with the Hasty Sling 5-18

Standing Position with the Parade Sling 5-19

Chapter 6. Use of Cover and Concealment

6001 Cover and Concealment 6-1

Types of Cover 6-1

Common Cover Materials 6-1

Firing From Specific Types of Cover 6-2

6002 Supported Firing Positions 6-4

Considerations Using Cover and Concealment 6-4

Seven Factors 6-6

Types of Supported Positions 6-8

6003 Searching for and Engaging Targets From Behind Cover 6-10

Pie Technique 6-10

Rollout Technique 6-10

Combining Techniques 6-10

6004 Moving Out From Behind Cover 6-11

Chapter 7. Rifle Presentation

7001 Presentation of the Rifle 7-1

Presenting the Rifle From the Tactical Carry 7-1

Presenting the Rifle From the Alert Carry and From the Ready Carry. . . 7-1

Presenting the Rifle From the Strong Side Sling Arms Transport 7-2

Presenting the Rifle From the Weak Side Sling Arms Transport 7-3

7002 Search and Assess 7-4

Technique 7-4

Searching and Assessing to a Higher Profile 7-4

Chapter 8. Effects of Weather

8001 Physical Effects of Wind on the Bullet 8-1

Physical Effects 8-1

Determining Windage Adjustments to Offset Wind Effects 8-1

8002 Physical Effects of Temperature and

Precipitation on the Bullet and the Rifle 8-2

Temperature 8-2

Precipitation 8-4

8003 Physical and Psychological Effects of Weather on Marines 8-4

Wind 8-4

Temperature 8-4

Precipitation 8-4

Light 8-5

Chapter 9. Zeroing

9001 Elements of Zeroing 9-1

Line of Sight 9-1

Aiming Point 9-1

Centerline of Bore 9-1

Trajectory 9-1

9002 Types of Zeros 9-2

Battlesight Zero (BZO) 9-2

9003 M16A2 Sighting System 9-2

Front Sight 9-2

Rear Sight 9-2

9004 Windage and Elevation Rules 9-3

Front Sight Elevation Rule 9-3

Rear Sight Elevation Rule 9-4

Windage Rule 9-4

9005 Initial Sight Settings 9-4

Front Sight Post 9-4

Rear Sight Elevation Knob 9-4

Windage Knob 9-4

9006 Zeroing Process 9-4

9007 Battlesight Zero 9-5

9008 Factors Causing a BZO to be Reconfirmed 9-6

Maintenance 9-6

Temperature 9-6

Climate 9-6

Ammunition 9-6

Ground Elevation 9-6

Uniform 9-6

9009 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of a BZO 9-7

Chapter 10. Engagement Techniques

10001 Target Detection 10-1

Target Indicators 10-1

Identifying Target Location 10-2

Maintaining Observation 10-3

Remembering Target Location 10-3

10002 Range Estimation 10-3

Range Estimation Methods 10-3

Factors Affecting Range Estimation 10-4

10003 Offset Aiming 10-5

Point of Aim Technique 10-5

Known Strike of the Round 10-6

10004 Techniques of Fire 10-7

Two-Shot Technique 10-7

Single Shot Technique 10-7

Sustained Rate of Fire 10-7

Three-Round Burst Technique 10-7

10005 Engaging Immediate Threat Targets 10-7

10006 Engaging Multiple Targets 10-7

Prioritizing Targets 10-8

Technique of Engagement 10-8

Firing Position 10-8

10007 Engaging Moving Targets 10-8

Types of Moving Targets 10-9

Leads 10-9

Engagement Methods 10-10

Marksmanship Fundamentals 10-11

10008 Engaging Targets at Unknown Distances 10-11

Hasty Sight Setting 10-11

Point of Aim Technique 10-12

10009 Engaging Targets During Low Light and Darkness 10-12

Night Vision 10-12

Searching Methods 10-12

Types of Illumination 10-13

Effects of Illumination 10-14

10010 Engaging Targets while Wearing the Field Protective Mask 10-14

Marksmanship Fundamentals 10-14

Firing Position 10-14


A Data Book A-1

Data Book A-1

Recording Data Before Firing A-1

Recording Data During Firing A-2

Recording Data After Firing A-5

B Glossary B-1


All Marines share a common warfighting belief: "Every Marine a rifleman." This simple credo reinforces the belief that all Marines are forged from a common experience, share a common set of values, and are trained as members of an expeditionary force in readiness. As such, there are no "rear area" Marines, and no one is very far from the fighting during expeditionary operations. The Marine rifleman of the next conflict will be as in past conflicts: among the first to confront the enemy and the last to hang his weapon in the rack after the conflict is won.


Marine Corps forces are employed across the entire range of military operations. At one end is war, which is characterized by large-scale, sustained combat operations. At the other end of the scale are those actions referred to as military operations other than war (MOOTW). MOOTW focuses on deterring aggression, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities. These operations can occur before, during, and after combat operations. Training and preparation for MOOTW should not detract from the Corps' primary mission of training Marines to fight and win in combat. MOOTW normally does not involve combat. However, Marines always need to be prepared to protect themselves and respond to changing threats and unexpected situations. Whenever the situation warrants the application of deadly force, the Marine rifleman must be able to deliver well aimed shots to eliminate the threat. Sometimes the need for a well aimed shot may even be heightened by the presence of noncombatants in close proximity to the target. The proficient rifleman handles this challenge without unnecessarily escalating the level of violence or causing unnecessary collateral damage. The Marine rifleman must have the versatility, flexibility, and skills to deal with a situation at any level of intensity across the entire range of military operations.

To be combat ready, the Marine must be skilled in the techniques and procedures of rifle marksmanship and take proper care of his rifle. Even when equipped with the best rifle in the world, a unit with poorly trained riflemen cannot be depended upon to accomplish their mission. Usually, poorly trained riflemen either fail to fire their weapon or they waste ammunition by firing ineffectively. To send Marines into harm's way without thorough training in the use of their individual weapons carries undue risks for every Marine in the unit. On the other hand, well trained riflemen can deliver accurate fire against the enemy under the most adverse conditions. A well trained rifleman is not only confident that he can help his unit accomplish it's mission, he is confident that he can protect his fellow Marines and himself.

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