German 20x80rb Cartridge Stamp

4, Cartridge Reference Data a- This paragraph presents information on the development, service use, and weight and muzzle velocity of the cartridges listed in table I.

b. It is emphasized that this guide is limited to the identification of cartridges based on physical characteristics. Dimensional similarity does not imply and will not insure that a cartridge can be safely fired in, or will properly function in, any weapon other than an appropriately chambered weapon designed to fire that cartridge.

Index No. 1 20x72RB

Other Designations: 20-mm Oerlikon Type FF;

20-mm Japanese Type 99, Mark 1.

The 20x72 RB cartridge, developed in the 1920s by the Swiss firm of Seebach Maschinenbau AG, was based on a similar but shorter cartridge used in the Becker automatic gun late in World War I. This cartridge was used by the successor to the Seebach firm, Werkzeug Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon, in the Type FF aircraft gun in the 1930s. During World War II, Germany made and used this cartridge; Japan also made the same cartridge for use in an Oerlikon-type naval aircraft gun, Type 99 Mark 1. The gun and cartridge were obsolete by the end of the war and have not been manufactured since that time.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight 176g (est)

Projectile weight 76-100 g (est)

Muzzle velocity 550 m/s (est)

Other Designation: 20-mm Oerlikon Type FFM.

This cartridge was developed by the Oerlikon firm before World War II for use in Type FFM aircraft guns, as an improvement over the Type FF gun and cartridge. During World War II, Germany also made and used this cartridge.

Except for production of 20x80RB cartridges in Spain in4953, these guns and this cartridge have not been reported in use since the close of World War II.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

210 g 113-130 g 575-600 m/s

Index No. 3 20x82

Other Designations: 2-cm Mauser; 2-cm FLAK 38;

This cartridge was designed by Mauser before World War II for use in a 2-cm wheeled antitank gun, as well as the 20-mm MG 151/20 aircraft gun and a 20-mm AA gun, designated FLAK 38. These weapons and ammunition were made and used by Germany during World War II, while Japan made and used both aircraft and AA guns in this caliber. The MG 151/20 gun was made and used by France until the early 1970s; cartridges are still produced in this caliber by Manurhin. These cartridges can be recognized by the brass case and the French-style headstamp.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

Other Designation: 20-mm Japanese Ho-5 aircraft gun.

Used in the World War II Japanese Ho-5 aircraft gun, which was based on a Browning design, this cartridge may have a HEI or AP-T projectile.

The Ma-202 fuzeless HEI projectile, with a PETN charge under the thin brass nose cap, is especially hazardous. The projectile can be recognized by the characters ^I O ^L {202) stenciled on the black projectile body. This gun and cartridge were obsolete at the war's end.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

Index No. 5 20x99R

Other Designation: 20-mm ShVAK aircraft gun.

Made only by the USSR, this straight-case cartridge was developed early in World War II for the ShVAK aircraft machinegun. HEI-T projectiles may have a K-6 or an A-20 PD fuze; cartridges with API projectiles were also produced. The gun has been obsolete in Soviet service since the early 1950s, but the cartridge is still in use for subcaliber training with the 122-mm howitzer, M1938 (M30).

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

Other Designations: 20-mm Oerlikon Type FFL;

20-mm Japanese Type 99, Mark 2.

The 20x1 OlRB cartridge was developed by Oerlikon before World War II for use in the Type FFL aircraft gun. During World War II Japan produced a copy of this gun, designated the Type 99 Mark 2 aircraft gun, for naval use. Japan used both Swiss-made and Japanese-made ammunition in this caliber. This gun and cartridge have not been reported in use since the close of World War II.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

218-225 g 120-132 g 670-700 m/s

Index No. 7 20x102

Other Designations: 20-mm M39, M39A1; 20-mm M61; 20-mm,

M50-series.

The 20xl02-mm cartridge was developed by the United States after World War II for use in 20-mm aircraft guns M39, M39A1, and M61. Cartridges are made and used throughout NATO and other free world countries. Both steel cases and brass cases are used. Standard 20x102 M50-series cartridges are electric-primed; some lots were made up with percussion primers for the Mk22 automatic gun, a US Navy trial weapon for small-craft armament. Some European-made 20x102 cartridges with percussion primers are also reported to have been made for developmental trials. Although the cartridges frequently have no headstamp, the country of origin can usually be determined from stamped or stenciled identification markings on fuze, projectile body, or cartridge case.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

235-263 g 101 g 1030 m/s

Other Designations: 20-mm S 18-100; 20-mm MG 204;

20-mm Short Solothurn.

This cartridge was developed in Switzerland during the 1930s by Solothurn for the S 18-100 antitank rifle, which saw service in the Russo-Finnish war of 1939. The cartridge was also used in the Solothurn S 12-100 aircraft gun, and during World War II in the Rheinmetall-designed MG 204, which was used on German naval seaplanes. Italy and Hungary, as well as Switzerland, Germany, and probably Finland, produced this cartridge during World War II.

The gun and cartridge have been obsolete since the close of World War II.

Characteristics

Not available.

Index No. 9 20x110RB

Other Designations: 20-mm Oerlikon Type "S";

The most powerful of the rebated-base Oerlikon 20-mm cartridges, this cartridge was developed before World War II for the Type "S" AA gun. Oerlikon guns firing this cartridge were used during World War II by Germany, by the United Kingdom in Polsten and Oerlikon guns, and by the US Navy in Mk 4 guns. Use by other countries is also reported. Although obsolete in US service since the close of World War II, this cartridge was made in Spain as recently as the 1950s and is still available from producers in Italy and Yugoslavia.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

232-250 g 120-135 g 830-900 m/s

Index No. 11 20x110 USN

Other Designation: 20-mm Mk 100 Series.

This electric-primed cartridge was developed by the US Navy after World War II for use in Mk 11 and Mk 12 Navy aircraft guns. The cartridges are frequently termed "Mk 100 Series" because cartridges in this caliber carry designations Mk 101 through Mk 109. The 20x110 USN cartridge is not made or used elsewhere.

The 20x110 USN cartridge has the same base diameter as the 20x102 cartridge, but a different case length and contour; it is not interchangeable with any other 20x110 cartridge. The guns and cartridge are currently in use.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

268 g 110g 1012 m/s

Other Designations: 20-mm Hispano-Suiza HS 404;

20-mm Hispano-Suiza HS 804; 20-mm for M3 gun;

This cartridge was developed by the Swiss firm Hispano-Suiza during the 1930s as a percussion-fired cartridge for the HS 404 and HS 804 aircraft and AA guns.

During World War II both the United States and the United Kingdom used Hispano-Suiza aircraft guns and made cartridges in this caliber; the US-made gun was designated M3.

This cartridge is still in wide use; in addition to Switzerland, Sweden, Yugoslavia, the United States, and the United Kingdom, this cartridge has been made by Egypt, France, Israel, Italy, and Spain, among others.

In the postwar period the United States developed and provided an electric-primed version of this cartridge for the M24 and M24A1 aircraft guns. This variant type, which normally has the word "ELECTRIC" stenciled on the cartridge base, will not function in percussion-fired weapons. The electric-primed case can be recognized by the insulating ring that surrounds the primer cup. The 20x110 cartridge has been replaced in US service by the 20x102 and 20x110 USN cartridges.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight 252-263 g

Projectile weight 125-140 g

Muzzle velocity

820-880 m/s

Other Designation: 20-mm Lahti.

Developed in Finland for the 20-mm Lahti aircraft cannon, which was used in the 1939 Russo-Finnish war, this cartridge saw very limited use. It resembles the Danish Madsen cartridge in having an exceptionally thick case rim, but differs in case length.

Characteristics

Not available

Index No. 13 20x120

Other Designation: 20-mm Madsen.

This cartridge was developed in Denmark during the 1930s for the Madsen machinegun. The gun and its cartridge were used by Germany during World War II and have seen limited use in several countries in postwar years. Though not known to be in current service use, this gun and cartridge may be found in reserve stocks. Cartridges were produced before World War II by Imperial Chemical Industries (Kynoch) in the United Kingdom, as well as by Denmark; they may also have been made elsewhere. Cases can be recognized by the exceptionally thick case rim.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight

311 g 146 g

7QH trxic index No. 14 20x124

Ocher Designations: 20-mm Japanese Type 97;

20-min Japanese Ho-1, Ho-3.

This cartridge was developed by Japan for use in the Type 97 AT rifle, introduced in 1937. The same cartridge case was used with other projectiles in the Ho-1 (flexible) and Ho-3 (fixed) aircraft guns. A 20x124 aircraft gun cartridge that must be handled with caution is the HEl, Type Ma 201, which contains under the thin nose cap a charge of PETN that detonates if the nose cap is crushed. The projectile is identified by the black steel projectile body with a red band to the rear of the bourrelet, and an unmarked brass nose cap. The characters ^Z (201) are stenciled on the projectile body.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

300-322 g 133-156 g 762 m/s

Index No. 16 20x128

Other Designations: 20-mm Oerlikon RK 206; RK 251;

Designed by the Swiss firm of Oerlikon-Biihrle in the 1950s, this cartridge is made in a percussion-primed version for the 5TG and 204 GK ground guns and in an electric-primed version for the now-obsolete revolver-type aircraft guns RK 206 and RK 251. Cartridges arc identical except for the type of ignition. In 1972, when Oerlikon obtained a controlling interest in Hispano-Suiza, the belt-fed 204 GK gun was redesignated KAA, and the magazine-fed 5TG gun was redesignated KAB. Cartridges are also produced by the French firm of Luchaire. The Spanish firm CETME, in Madrid, now produces electric-primed cartridges in this caliber for the multibarreled MEROKA AA gun.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

330-360 g 122-138 g 1085-1200 m/s

Other Designation: 20-mm "Davy Crockett" spotter.

Developed in the early 1960s as a spotter cartridge for the US "Davy Crockett" M28 light weapon system, this cartridge fires a long, fin-stabilized spotter projectile through a smoothbore 20-mm gun mounted under the primary weapon barrel. The cartridge case contains a high-low pressure system to insure reliable ignition while holding chamber pressure to a proper working level. The cartridge case has two spanner wrench holes in the closing plug in the cartridge base. A stenciled marking on the cartridge case gives caliber and model designations: 20-mm SPOTTER M101.

The projectile has an electric impact fuze that on impact produces a flash and smoke of sufficient intensity to be visible at 2000 meters. The "Davy Crockett" weapon system is no longer in use.

Characteristics Not available.

Other Designations: 2-cm Long Solothurn; 2-cm Rheinmctall;

Developed during the 1930s by the Swiss firm Solothurn AG as an improvement over the 20xl05B cartridge, the 20xl38B has been used in a variety of AT guns and AA machineguns: the Swiss-designed tank gun S18-1000 and AT gun S18-1100; Italian Breda AT and AA guns; the Finnish Lahti 20-mm AT gun; and the Rheinmetall 2-cm FLAK 30/38 AA gun. Sweden used the Rheinmetall AA gun and the Swiss AT gun under the designation m/39. Cartridges have been produced in Switzerland, Sweden, Germany, Finland, and (before 1941} Greece; they are still offered for sale by Yugoslavia and by Bombrini Parodi-Delfino of Italy. Both brass-cased and steel-cased cartridges are known.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

320 g 148 g

860-900 m/s

Index No. 18 20x139

Other Designations: 20-mm HS 820; 820A; 820L;

Hispano-Suiza of Switzerland developed this cartridge at the close of World War II to provide improved performance over that of the 20x110 Hispano-Suiza cartridge. HS 820 guns were widely marketed during the 1950s, and ammunition improvements have kept pace with improved gun models. The same cartridge has been adopted by France for the M693 automatic gun, by Germany for the Rheinmetall Rh 202 gun, and by the United States for the Ml 39 gun. Projectile and fuze designs, designations, and characteristics vary among the producing countries. Cartridges in this caliber are also made in the Netherlands, in Norway, and by Bombrini Parodi-Delfino of Italy.

In the postwar period Hispano-Suiza developed a 23xl39-mm cartridge, based on the 20xl39-mm design, for use in the 827C aircraft gun. This gun and ammunition were not produced other than in trial quantities. In the 1960s, the Mauser firm developed a 23-mm cartridge for the C-l aircraft gun. Except for the larger diameter projectile, the cartridge is similar in dimensions and case outline to the 20xl39-mm cartridge. No quantity production of this 23-mm cartridge is reported.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

317 g 120 g 1100 m/s

Other Designation: 20-mm Japanese Type 98.

This cartridge was introduced in 1938 for Type 98 AA and AT guns. HE-T and AP-T projectiles are known.

Characteristics

Other Designations: 20-mm Bofors m/40; 20-mm Tubkanon.

Developed by Bofors for the 20-mm Bofors A A gun, Model m/40, and used also in the m 40/70 gun. While these guns are obsolete for service, similar cartridges are used in subcaliber guns for 57-mm and 75-mm AT guns, and vehicle-mounted 75-mm and 105-mm guns.

Unlike other Bofors cartridges, this cartridge has no annular groove in the cartridge base for the Bofors feed clip.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

396-423 g 129-156 g 830 m/s

Index No. 20

20xl45R

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

290-300 g 136-145 g 815-845 m/s

Index No. 21 20x180R

Other Designation: 20-mm m/39.

The large propellant volume of this cartridge is due to its use in a recoilless AT gun, designated m/42. This cartridge is identified by its large-diameter rim, measuring nearly 48 mm, and by the blowout disk in the cartridge base surrounding the percussion primer. Both HE and AP projectiles were used. This gun and cartridge were in use during the 1940s but are no longer in service.

Characteristics

Cartridge weighc 520-540 g

Projectile weight 115-136 g

Muzzle velocity 950 m/s

Index No. 22 23x106

Other Designation: 23-mm Madsen.

Developed during the 1930s in Demark for the Madsen automatic gun, this cartridge saw limited production and use. Cartridges were made in Denmark and in the United Kingdom by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Kynoch). The gun and cartridge are believed obsolete since the 1940s.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight 341 g

Projectile weight 174 g

Muzzle velocity 720 m/s

Other Designations: 23-mm NR/NS 23; 23-mm AM-23.

This standard Soviet aircraft gun cartridge is used in three gun systems: NR/NS 23, AM-23, and GSh-23. Both HEI and API loadings are known. Although dimensionally similar, cartridges for AM-23 and GSh-23 guns differ in their loading and are not functionally interoperable with NR/NS-23 cartridges. AM-23 and GSh-23 cartridges are identified by a white band around the projectile body.

All 23x115 cartridges have percussion-primed brass cases. These cartridges have also been made by Czechoslovakia; they can be identified by the presence of the factory code dtp in the cartridge headstamp.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

321-345 g 174-200 g 690-740 m/s

Index No. 24 23xl52B

Other Designations: 23-mm ZU; ZSU; 23-mm VYa aircraft gun.

This cartridge was developed by the Soviet Union for use in the World War II VYa aircraft gun. When this gun was replaced in service by the 23x115 NR/NS aircraft gun, the excellent performance of the 23x15 2B VYa cartridge led to its further development as a high-performance cartridge for the ZU-23 and ZSU-23-4 AA gun systems.

While closely similar in dimensions, the steel-cased ZU/ZSU cartridges are not functionally interoperable with the brass-case VYa cartridge. The latter, however, has continued in production for use in tank subcaliber guns. Steel-cased ZU/ZSU cartridges have been made in (or for) Egypt, and may have been produced elsewhere outside the Soviet Union.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight Projectile weight Muzzle velocity

437-450 g 183-192 g 930-1000 m/s

Other Designation: 24-mm TkB, K-38.

Introduced by Switzerland in 1938 for the Swiss Tankbuchse (tank gun) Model K-38, this gun and cartridge were probably withdrawn from service during the 1940s. HE and AT cartridges were made.

Characteristics

Cartridge weight 460 g

Projectile weight 225 g

Muzzle velocity 900 m/s

Index No. 26

25x137

Other Designations: 25-mm Oerlikon; Type KB A; Type KBB.

Introduced by Oerlikon in the 1960s, this high-performance cartridge can be recognized by the annular link-positioning groove located 98.5 mm from the base of the steel cartridge case. This groove disappears when the cartridge is fired but leaves an impression on the case. HEI-T and APDS-T projectiles are available.

The cartridge is used in the US-designed TRW 6425 gun and in Oerlikon's KB A and KBB guns.

The Netherlands is now using the KB A gun and ammunition, and its adoption is under consideration by other Western countries.

Characteristics

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Responses

  • LESTER JOHNSON
    What is the muzzle velocity of the oerlikon lahti?
    7 years ago

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