Unfortunately, too many people in the sniping community think the only dignified way to counter a sniper is with a one-shot kill from long range— which I heartily dispute. The problem is that overfocusing on this one-shot solution limits and delays effectively dealing with an armed opponent who may be harvesting more lives with each passing minute.
You need a host of assorted counter-sniper techniques so you immediately can match a workable one to any situation you encounter. Before covering these techniques, though, consider what exactly you are trying to accomplish.
An unimpeded enemy sniper, invisible and free to roam and shoot when and where he wishes, is an offensive threat since he is the hunter and we his quarry. Any large or small action you take is geared toward reducing his abilities to see, shoot, or move. That is, any technique must contribute to turning him from an offensive threat into a defensive threat—deprived of the initiative, robbed of observation, unable to move, and capable of firing only in self-defense. Actually shooting him is just one of many options, although your ultimate goal always is his total elimination.
Therefore, merely disrupting bis ability to take aimed shots could be useful, just as causing him to ccase firing or flee may be enough to suit your situation. For military snipers, it's important not to fall into the rut of "escalation" in which you think you must attempt and fail the least violent techniques before the others can be employed. On the other hand, police snipers may be obligated to limit collateral damage and must consider bystanders in any deadly force situation.
Whether a police or military sniper, though, in any countersniper situation you will follow two steps: first, locate the sniper, and second, act upon him.
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