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The routes will be explained in addition to the map overlay. Principles to Follcw for Selecting your route are:

(1) Avoid known or suspected enemy positions and obstacles.

(2) Seek terrain avoiding open areas and offering the most cover andccon-cealment for daylight movement.

(3) Seek terrain permitting quiet movement at night.

(4) Take advantage of the more difficult terrain, such as swamps and dense woods.

(5) Avoid moving along exposed ridges. Move along the slope below the ridge to prevent silhouetting yourself. (Military Crest)

(6) Avoid using trails in guerrilla-infested areas and in the areas between forces who are in contact in conventional operations.

(7) Avoid moving laterally in front of friendly or enemy lines.

(8) Avoid areas which may be mined, booby trapped, or covered by fire.

(9) Avoid villages, trails leading into villages, wells, and other places where you are likely to meet natives of the area.

(10) Study maps, aerial photos or sketches and memorize your route before you start your mission.

(11) Note distinctive features such as hills, streams, or swamps and their locations in relation to your route.

(12) If possible, "box" your route in with terrain features to aid in navigation .

(13) In unexpected, difficult, or different terrain (and obstacles), such as jungle and swamps, plan an offset (to a known terrain feature.)

(14) Always plan at least one alternate route to use in case you cannot use your primary route.

3. Departure and Re-entry of Friendly Areas:

A) Forward Unit Co-ordination

1) Identify yourself and your patrol with the forward unit commander.

2) State the size (and mission) of your patrol.

3) Give the time and place of departure and return (location of passage points).

4) Give the location of your assembly area and IRP.

5) Tell the commander the area of operation for your patrol.

6) Get the following information frati the forward unit ccnmander:

a) Terrain and vegetation in front of his sector b) Known or suspected enemy positions c) Recent enemy activities d) Friendly positions - OPs, LPs, Patrols

7) Determine the forward unit's fire and barrier plan

8) Determine what support the forward unit can furnish:

a) Guides b) Ccrmnunications plan between the patrol and the forward unit (to call for support)

c) Navigational aids or signals d) Litter teams e) Fire support f) Reactionary squads

9) Exchange call signs and frequencies.

10) Co-ordinate pyro plans, emergency signals, and codes.

11) Confirm challeng(s) and password(s).

12) Ensure the forward unit commander "gets the word" to his personnel (front line, OPs, LPs) of your passage. (You may want to accompany him when he goes to inform the squad leaders, etc.)

13) Ensure the information will be passed on if the forward unit is relieved.

B) Principles for Departure

1) Establish an IRP. The IRP may be occupied or just planned for, but all patrol members must know its location.

2) Security is maintained.

3) Members of the patrol do not move within the friendly units area without a guide to lead them.

4) Final co-ordination is made with the friendly unit commander to ensure no changes have occured since co-ordination was last made. (This may be the first co-ordination made with the friendly unit.)

5) The patrol members will be counted out.

6) The patrol will make a security/1 istening halt for all members to adjust bo the sights, sounds, and smell of the battle area. This halt is normally made beyond the friendly units security positions/Ops/LPs or Final Protective Fires.

C. Techniques for Departure of Friendly Units

1) The patrol arrives at the forward unit and is met by a guide from that unit. The guide will lead the patrol to its IRP.

2) No one, either singly or as a patrol, should move anywhere in the forward units area without a guide.

3) The PL should then make a final co-ordination with the forward unit commander. Here he will learn of any changes that may have taken place since the last co-ordination and of any recent enemy activity that may affect the patrol.

4) Prior to leaving the patrol the PL gives instructions (contingency plan) for what should be done while he is gone. These instructions state:

a) Where he is going (and who he is taking with him)

b) How long he will be gone c) What to do if he does not return d) Actions to be taken if there is enemy contact

If all goes well, the PL shouldn't need to re-issue these instructions when he leaves the patrol for final co-ordination.

5) On returning from final co-ordination, the PL may issue a Frag Order to cover any changes.

CO ITig Leuliiiique lur deparLiny IiieiiUiy ureas depends on tiio eioiiy situation.

The corrmon threats are:

a) Ambush and chance contact b) Indirect fire c) STANO devices (surveillance, Target Acquisition, Night Observation)

7) Have a security/listening halt after the patrol has moved out of sight and sound of the forward unit (about 400 to 600 meters from the PTFV) . This is a short (long) halt to see if the enemy is in the area, and to accustom the patrol to the sights and sounds of the battlefield or the area of operation, before moving on. If a guide is used, have him wait at least ten minutes before going back to friendly lines, after the patrol leaves the first security halt.

8) During a patrol, have frequent security/listening halts to see that the patrol is not being followed and that there is no enemy in the area.

D. Principles of Re-entry of Friendly Areas

1) Ideally, re-entry should be made in the same sector you left from.

2) Establish and occupy a re-entry rally point.

3) Maintain security at the HRP and at the re-entry point.

4) Contact the forward unit for permission to re-enter.

5) Meet a guide at the re-entry point. Normally a pre-coordinated, forward of the front lines password will be used. Have a pre-co-ordinated alternate re-entry signal (pyro) .

6) Patrol members will be counted in (to prevent infiltration, especially during reduced visibility.)

E. Techniques for Re-entry of Friendly Units

1) Move the patrol into a rally point near the re-entry point. This RP should be near a prominent terrain feature where the PL can pinpoint his location, with respect to the re-entry point (especially at night.)

2) By radio, alert the forward unit that the patrol is ready to reenter. Use a code word. The code word must be acknowledged by forward unit before the patrol reconnoiters for the re-entry point. This will indicate that is a guide has been sent to the re-entry point and is waiting, and that security elements, LPs, and OPs have been notified. If you have no ccnmuni-cation, do not attempt to re-enter at night. Wait until daylight and use your alternate re-entry signal (pyro plan).

3) If the PL is certain of the re-entry point, he will move forward to make co-ordination.

4) Avoid movement parallel to friendly barriers. If the re-entry point cannot be found, radio higher headquarters and move to another rally point to await daylight or further instructions on the means of re-entry.

Do not stay in the same place from which radio transmission was made to avoid RDF.

5) When the re-entry point has been located, the PL will go get the rest of the patrol and bring them to it.

6) The guide leads the patrol through the barriers to a security position previously co-ordinated for debrief.

7) Remember that the re-entry phase of the patrol is one of the most critical.

4. Organization for Movement:

Who will be point, who will be rear during the entire patrol (when, will you switch positions any time during the patrol). List the basic responsibilities for each member of the patrol during movement.

5. Actions at Danger Areas:

A) Five Types of Danger Areas:

1) Linear Danger Areas - roads, trails, fire breaks, streams, rivers, (enemy main line of defense), etc. Both flanks of the patrol are exposed.

2) Small Open Danger Areas - can be hit in one flank and/or the front, (bypass or offset)

3) Large Open Danger Areas - can be hit from anywhere. (Bounds/Over Watch/Leap Frog) (bypass/offset))

4) Series of Danger Areas - similar to large open areas, especially when it's a series of linear danger areas.

5) Danger Areas Within Danger Areas - example: linear danger area within a large open area.

6) (The objective area is a danger area, but is not included in this section).

B) Explain how the patrol will deal with each type of danger area listed above. (Hypothetical Situations) Then list the danger areas along your tentative route, including grid locations, and explain hew they will be dealt with.

C) Principles:

1) Avoid danger areas if possible.

2) Plan to offset. RALS rule.

3) Anyone can designate a danger area, the patrol leader determines whether it is or not.

4) The patrol should cross a danger area where observation is restricted, such as a curve in the road, where vegetation ccmes right up to both sides of the road, or a bend in a stream.

5. Designate a near side rally point and a far side rendezvous point, (if they are not already designated in the patrol order.) The rally point on the near side will usually be the last rally point designated before encountering the danger area. The rendezvous point on the far side will be a safe distance past the danger area near the route of march.

6) Reconnoiter the far side, either by a visual recon from the near side (security halt) or by sending the point man across to conduct a triangular recon. Do not cross until the recon is complete. Triangular recon:

7) If the patrol is split by enemy action while crossing, the man (men) on the far side should go to the rendezvous point and the man (men)

on the near side should go to the last designated rally point. The man (men) at the last rally point should then attempt to cross the danger area at a different point, and meet the man (men) at the rendezvous point. If a considerable amount of time has elapsed (or a pre-deisgnated period of time) the patrol should meet at the ORP. (Utilize stealth)

8) Remove evidence that the patrol has crossed, such as footprints.

6. Actions on Enemy Contact:

a) Avoid all enemy contact - that is not advantageous to the mission or is short of the objective area.

b) If contact is made - break contact and either extract the team or continue with the mission.

c) Immediate Action Drills - used when unintentional contact is made and there is no time for giving orders. They must be planned and well rehearsed. Immediate Action Drills are:

(1) Simple - situations calling for IA drills also call for aggressive/ violent execution.

(2) Require Speed of Execution - As scon as any member of the patrol recognizes the need for it, he will initiate the appropriate iirmediate action drill. Instantaneous action usually gives the best chance for success and survival.

Imnediate Action Drills are used to:

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