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Fire Control Requirements 43 5-5. Methods of Fire Control 43 5-6. Purpose of Fire Commands 44 Section 111. Principles of Application of Fire 52 5-7. Types of Targets 52 5-8. Methods of Application of Fire 53 5-9. Target Engagement Direct Lay 55 5-10. Deep 5-11. Hard-to-ldentify Deep Targets 58 5-12. Linear Targets with Depth 59 5-13. Area 5-14. Assault Fire 5-15. Assault Fire 5-16. Movement. Speed, and Alignment 64 5-17. Reloading 5-18. Fire 5-19. Fire 5-20. Overhead 5-21. Defilade...

General Assembly

Place the bipod group on the receiver with the bipod legs open and pointed downward. b. REPLACING THE GAS CYLINDER GROUP. Push the gas cylinder through the bipod yoke into the receiver and, using the other hand, align the gas cylinder with the receiver. Then rotate the gas cylinder until it locks into position. c. REPLACING THE H ANDGUARD GROUP. To replace the handguard, place it on the receiver from the bottom and slide it to the rear until it stops. Using a...

Range Determination

Range determination is the process of finding the distance between two points. In most situations, one of these points will be the observer's own position. The other point may be a target or prominent terrain feature. THE ABILITY TO DETERMINE RANGE ACCURATELY IS A KEY SKILL NEEDED BY THE GUNNER TO ACCOMPLISH HIS MISSION. Not only does the accurate determination of range affect his marksmanship, but it is also required in the reporting of information and the adjustment of artillery and mortar...

Area Targets

The leader designates an area target by indicating the width and depth of the target. Area targets are engaged with traversing and searching fire. a. SAWS IN PAIRS. The target is divided at the midpoint the right SAW fires on the right half and the left SAW fires on the left half. The point of initial lay and adjustment for both SAWs is on the midpoint. After adjusting fire on the center of mass, fire is distributed by applying direction and elevation changes that give the most effective...

Al AREAS

The training program for unit training with the bipod-mounted SAW is subdivided into the following areas b. PRELIMINARY MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING AND DRY FIRE c. PROFICIENCY (PERFORMANCE) EXAMINATION d. TEN-METER PRACTICE AND QUALIFICATION e. TRANSITION RANGE PRACTICE RECORD QUALIFICATION FIRING f. TRANSITION RANGE QUALIFICATION FIRING. A-2. PERIOD 1 - INTRODUCTION (3-HOUR PERIOD) After a brief description of the weapon, soldiers will receive the following instruction a. DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY...

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THIS GROUP IS TOO LOOSE TO ASSUME ACCURATE SIGHT ADJUSTMENTS. ANOTHER GROUP MUST BE FIRED BEFORE IT IS TIGHT ENOUGH TO MAKE ADJUSTMENTS. Step 3 Correct for Windage. If the center of the group is to the left or right of the black aiming paster, the gunner must correct for windage. To do this, he must turn the windage knob to move the peep sight in the direction of the desired change (moving the sight RIGHTmoves the impact RIGHT moving it LEFT moves the impact LEFT). Each click equals 1 2 mil,...

Placement Of The Center Of The Beaten Zone On The Target

I . . ' 1 '' . ' * ' * a '' ' I ' ' * ' LOWER HALF OF BEATEN ZONE RICOCHETING INTO TARGET With regard to direction of manipulation, the gunner must move his beaten zone in a certain direction over the target. The direction depends upon the type of target and whether the target is engaged with a single SAW or a pair. When engaging area targets (but not point targets) with a pair of SAWs, the targets are divided. Each gunner is given a part of the target so that fire is evenly distributed over...

Maintenance And Inspection

BUTTSTOCK AND SHOULDER ASSEMBLY GROUP. Check the huttstock for cracks, bends, or breaks, and check for missing components. Make sure the shoulder piece is not bent or broken and that it locks in both positions. (1) The operating rod should not be bent, broken, or cracked. Check for a missing tip. Check the buffer spring for breaks. Ensure that lug pins protrude equally on both sides of the buffer spacer. The operating rod spring should not have kinks or separated strands. Check for broken...

Employment

The squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner supports the infantry squad in both offense and defense. He is capable of engaging targets with a heavier volume of fire than that of the individual rifleman. The weapon provides the infantry squad with improved suppressive fire and a high volume of close and continuous assault fire. There is no change in movement techniques used by a SAW gunner from those used by M16A1 automatic riflemen. In the defense, the SAW is sited by the squad leader. The SAW...

F Removing The Barrel

(1) The barrel group consists of barrel, flash suppressor, front sight, gas regulator, and gas regulator collar. (2) To remove the barrel from the receiver, close the cover assembly, depress the barrel locking lever with the left hand, hold the carrying handle with the right hand, lift up on the carrying handle, and push the barrel forward. g. REMOVING THE GAS REGULATOR AND COLLAR. To remove the gas regulator and gas regulator collar, rotate the gas regulator lever between the normal and...

Removing The Handguard

THE HANDGUARD RETAINING PIN IS A CAPTUHED PIN. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REMOVE IT COMPLETELY DURING DISASSEMBLY. i. REMOVING THE BUTTSTOCK AND SHOULDER ASSEMBLY. To remove the buttstock and shoulder assembly, use a cartridge or the spring guide rod to push the lowermost retaining pin on the rear of the receiver. Remove the buttstock and shoulder assembly by pulling it rearward while supporting the trigger mechanism. THE UPPER AND LOWER RETAINING PINS IN THE REAR OF THE RECEIVER ARE CAPTURED PINS. DO...

Characteristics Of Fire

Trajectory is the path of the bullet in flight. An understanding of the SAW's trajectory, or curved flight path, is required in order to apply effective fire throughout the full effective range of the weapon. The path of the bullet is almost flat at ranges of300 meters or less. At ranges beyond 300 meters, the trajectory is curved, and the curve becomes greater as the range increases. a. MAXIMUM ORDINATE. This is the highest point the trajectory reaches between the muzzle of the weapon and the...

Cleaning And Lubrication

The SAW should be cleaned immediately after firing. It should be disassembled into its major groups or assemblies for cleaning. a. All metal components and surfaces that have been exposed to powder fouling should be cleaned using cleaner, lubricant, preservative (CLP) on a bore-cleaning patch. Use the same procedure to clean the receiver. TAKE CARE TO AVOID GETTING CLP ON THE GAS REGULATOR AND PISTON. b. The gas regulator and piston are cleaned after each firing. To clean the gas regulator and...

Boxfed

M249 Squad Automatic Weapon

Place the first round of the belt in the tray groove with the double link first and the open side of the links down. Ensure that the round ' remains in the tray groove, and close the cover. Hold the belt up, approximately six rounds from the loading end, while closing the cover. c. MAGAZINE-FED. The 30-round magazine may be loaded by inserting it into the magazine well on the left side of the receiver and pushing it firmly to the right until it seats and the release tab clicks into...

Methods Of Application Of Fire

In combat, the size and nature of a target may call for the fire of more than one SAW. The method of applying fire to a target is generally the same for either a single SAW or a pair. a. AREA AND POINT FIRE. Area fire is fire that is delivered in width, in depth, or in a combination of both. To distribute fire properly, gunners must know where to aim, how to adjust their fire, and in which direction to manipulate the SAW. With regard to the point of initial lay and adjustment, the gunner must...

Dl Safety Precautions

Safety precautions must be observed during all marksmanship training. These precautions include a. A red flag will be displayed at the entrance to the range or in some other prominent location on the range during firing. b. It will always be assumed that weapons are loaded until they have been thoroughly examined and found to contain no ammunition. c. Firing limits will be marked with red-and-white-striped poles visible to all firers. d. Obstructions will never be placed in the muzzles of...

Purpose Of Fire Commands

A fire command is given to deliver effective fire on a target quickly and without confusion. When the leader decides to engage a target that is not obvious to the squad members, he must provide them with the information they need to effectively engage the target. He must alert the squad members give a target direction, description, and range name the method of fire and give the command to fire. There are initial fire commands and subsequent fire commands. Initial fire commands are given to...

Malfunctions

A malfunctioning SAW is a weapon that is not firing properly. Defective ammunition or improper operation by the firer is not a malfunction. Two of the more common malfunctions of the SAW are sluggish operation and uncontrolled fire (runaway gun). Table 4-1 shows these malfunctions, their probable causes, and corrective actions. a. SLUGGISH OPERATIONS. Sluggish operation of the SAW usually is due to excessive friction caused by carbon buildup, by lack of proper lubrication, or by burred parts or...

Classes Of Fire

The SAW fire is classified with respect to the GROUND, the TARGET, and the WEAPON. a. Fire with respect to the GROUND includes (1) Grazing Fire. When the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. When firing over level or uniformly sloping terrain, a maximum of 600 meters of grazing fire can be obtained. (2) Plunging Fire. When danger space is practically confined to the beaten zone. Plunging fire occurs when firing at long ranges, when firing from high ground...

Methods Of Fire Control

The noise and confusion of battle may limit the use of some of these methods therefore, the leader must select a method or combination of methods that will best accomplish the mission. a. ORAL. This is an effective method of control, but at times the leader may be too far away from the gunner, or the noise of the battle may make it impossible for the gunner to hear him. b. ARM-AND-HAND SIGNALS. This is an effective method when the gunners can see the leader. All gunners must understand the...

Loading

Pull the bolt to the rear by the cocking handle with the palm facing up. When the bolt is held to the rear by the sear, manually return the cocking handle to the forward position and place the safety on SAFE. Raise the cover assembly and ensure that the tray, receiver group, and chamber are clear. a. BOX-FED. Place the front round of the belt in the tray groove with the extension of the belt clipped to the feed tray and the open side of the links down. Close the cover....

Operation and Cycle of Functioning Operation

The SAW is loaded, fired, unloaded, and cleared from the open-bolt position. The safety must be in the FIRE position before the bolt can be pulled to the rear. a. Before using belted ammunition, ensure that 2 It is free of dirt and corrosion. 3 The double link is at the opening end of the box. b. Before using magazine ammunition, ensure that 1 It is properly loaded into the magazine. 2 It is free of dirt and corrosion.

Fundamentals And Firing Techniques

Each SAW gunner must be trained in standard methods of applying fire with the weapon. The easiest and quickestmeans of delivering fire with the SAW mounted on the bipod is by aligning the sights of the weapon on the target and properly applying fire. This technique is called DIRECT LAY. At times, techniques of fire other than direct lay are more effective. When delivering fire in the assault, overhead fire, and fire from position defilade, the gunner must use the techniques described in this...

Cone Of Fire And Beaten Zone

This is the space between the weapon and the target where the trajectory does not rise above 1.8 meters the average height of a standing soldier . This includes the area of the beaten zone. When the SAW on its bipod is fired over level or uniformly sloping terrain at a target less than 700 meters away, the trajectory will not rise above the average height of a standing soldier. When targets are engaged over level or uniformly sloping terrain at ranges greater than 700 meters,...

Stoppages

A stoppage is any interruption in the cycle of functioning caused by faulty action of the weapon or faulty ammunition. Stoppages are classified by their relationship to the cycle of functioning. Table 4-2 shows types of interruptions or stoppages and their probable causes and corrective actions. Clean gas regulator, piston, and cylinder. Damaged, weak, or worn operating parts. Reinstall link belt with open end of link facing down. Dirty ammunition. Carbon buildup in gas cylinder. Carbon buildup...

Target Engagement Direct

When fire is under direct control of a leader, he designates the midpoint and flanks or ends of a target unless they are obvious to the gunners. In the case of an area target, the gunner on the left applies his fire to the left half of the target, and the gunner on the right takes the right half. Each gunner must be prepared to engage the entire target. Gunners continue to fire until the target is neutralized or until signaled to do otherwise by the leader. To aid in fire control, SAWs employed...

Immediate Action

Immediate action is action taken to reduce a malfunction or stoppage without looking for the cause. Immediate action should be taken in the event of either a misfire or a cookoff. a. A MISFIRE is the failure of a chambered round to fire. Such failure can be due to an ammunition defect or faulty firing mechanism. b. A COOKOFF is the firing of a round by the heat of a very hot barrel, and not by the firing mechanism. c. If the SAW 8tops firing, the following immediate actions are taken within 10...

Table Components And Purposes

Houses cartridges for firing, directs projectile, and supports fixed front sight. Serves as a shoulder support for aiming and fir- ing SAW. Contains a folding shoulder rest. Absorbs recoil from bolt and operating rod as sembly at the end of recoil movement. TABLE 1-1. COMPONENTS AND PURPOSES CONTINUED Transfers power from propelling gases to bolt and slide assemblies in the functioning of the SAW moves recoiling parts rearward . Provides feeding, stripping, chambering, firing, and extraction,...

Types Of Targets

Targets for SAW gunners in combat will in most cases be enemy troops. Different troop formations will make it necessary to use different classes of fire distribution. These targets have width and depth, and the fire must thoroughly cover the area in which the enemy is known or suspected to be. The targets may be easy to find or hard to see or find. a. POINT TARGETS. These require the use of a single aiming point. Examples of point targets are enemy bunkers, weapons emplacements, vehicles, and...

Proficiency Performance Examination

This appendix provides a guide for administering the proficiency examination to gunners. The purpose of this examination is to determine whether the soldier can perform all the tasks taught in the dry-fire training. B-l. DRY-FIRE PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION a. The examination is a practical nonfiling exercise given during the last period of the SAW block of instruction prior to range firing. It is not required that it be conducted on a range, and it may be held indoors if available facilities will...

Cycle Of Functioning

The bolt is unlocked from the barrel socket. 6 Extracting. The empty cartridge case is pulled from the chamber. 7 Ejecting. The empty cartridge case is thrown from the receiver. 8 Cocking. The sear engages the sear notch on the piston. b. PROCEDURES. Start the cycle by putting the first round of the belt in the tray groove or inserting the magazine into the magazine well. Then pull the trigger, releasing the sear from the sear notch. When the trigger is pulled to the rear, the...

Sequence Of Functioning

As the bolt starts its forward movement, the feed lever is forced to the right, causing the feed-pawl assembly to turn in the opposite direction. This forces the feed-pawl assembly over the next round in the bolt, and it is ready to place the next round into the tray groove when the rearward action occurs again. As the bolt moves to the rear after firing, the feed roller forces the feed lever to the left. The feed lever is forced to turn, moving the feed pawl to the right, and this...

The Saw And Components Of The SawrW

Social Security Gun Grab

The SAW has a hooded and semi-fixed front sight. The rear sight is mounted on the top cover of the ammunition feed mechanism assembly. The elevation knob drum is marked for each 100 meters of range, from 300 meters to a maximum of 1,000 meters. Range changes are made on the SAW sight by rotating the elevation knob to the desired range setting Rotation of the peep sight is used for fine elevation or range adjustments, such as during zeroing. Each click of the peep sight 180-degree...

Detailed Disassembly And Assembly Unit Armorer

Detailed disassembly at unit level is limited to the barrel group, shoulder rest, operating rod, bolt assembly, trigger mechanism, cover assembly and feed tray, handguard, and receiver group. b. DISASSEMBLY OF THE BARREL GROUP. To disassemble the flash suppressor, secure the barrel in a vise with protective jaws. Using an adjustable wrench, remove the flash suppressor by turning clockwise because it has a left-handed thread. To disassemble the carrying handle grip, use the 10-mm end...

General Disassembly

Bridger Cal 9mm Takedown

The M249 SAW can be disassembled and assembled without special tools or equipment except for the handguard assembly, the gas regulator, and the gas regulator collar. Detailed disassembly requires special tools. As each part is removed in disassembly, it should be placed on a clean, flat surface such as a table, shelter half, or disassembly mat. This makes it easy to keep track of parts, and it aids in the assembly, since the parts are assembled in reverse order from disassembly. Disassembly of...