Automatic And Semiautomatic Rifles And Carbines Section I General

45. SIMONOV RIFLE

The Simonov automatic rifle M1936 (AVS)1 (fig. 52) was the first automatic and semiautomatic rifle produced by the U. S. S. R. in 7. 62-mm caliber. Imperial Russia had previously produced the Federov automatic rifle M1916, in 6.5-mm caliber, but the weapon did not prove successful and very few were manufactured. The Simonov rifle M1936 evidently did not meet requirements either, for it is no longer used in the Soviet Army and has not been encountered in the field.

FIGURE 52. 7. 62-MM AUTOMATIC RIFLE M1936 (AVS).

46. TOKAREV RIFLES AND CARBINES

a The Tokarev 7. 62-mm semiautomatic rifle M1938 (SVT)2 (fig. 53), was the first of a 1 * is of Tokarev rifles. This model has a two-piece stock and is very lightly built. It is beli-v-^i obsolete in Soviet and satellite forces.

FIGURE 53. 7. 62-MM SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE M1938 (SVT).

*AVS: Avtomaticheskaya Vintovka Simonova— Automatic Rifle Simonov. ^SVT: Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokarev — Semiautomatic Rifle Tokarev.

b. The Tokarev 7. 62-mm semiautomatic rifle M1940 (SVT) (fig. 54), as well as the 7. 62~mm automatic and semiautomatic rifle M1940 (AVT)^ (fig. 55), while considerably sturdier than the M1938, still proved rather flimsy for military use. Considerable difficulty was experienced in repair and maintenance of these weapons during World War II, and it is believed that they are no longer standard weapons.

Soviet Satellite
FIGURE 55. 7. 62-MM AUTOMATIC RIFLE MI940 (AVT).

c. The Tokarev semiautomatic sniper rifles M1938 (fig. 56) and M1940 (fig. 57), because of their flimsy construction and the difficulties experienced in their repair and maintenance, are no longer standard weapons. These sniper rifles are merely Tokarev semiautomatic rifles M1938 (SVT) and Ml940 (SVT) which have been specially selected for accuracy and adapted for mounting telescopic sights.

Semi Automatic Rifles
FIGURE 56. 7.62-MM SEMIAUTOMATIC SNIPER RIFLE M1938.

3AVT: Avtomaticheskaya Vintovka Tokarev — Automatic Rifle Tokarev.

FIGURE 57. 7.62-MM SEMIAUTOMATIC SNIPER RIFLE M1940.

d. The Tokarev 7. 62-mm semiautomatic carbine M1940 was made only In.small numbers. Its weaknesses, with regard to durability, repair, and maintenance, were the same as those of the Tokarev rifles. This carbine is not a standard weapon, and is unlikely to be found in the field.

47. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOMATIC AND SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLES

Basic characteristics of Soviet '7. 62-mm automatic and semiautomatic rifles are presented in table II.

SECTION II. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MODELS

48. AUTOMATIC RIFLE M1936 (AVS)

a. The automatic rifle M1936 (fig. 52), which has been superseded by the Tokarev series, ;s capable of either semi- or full-automatic fire. It is difficult to field strip and is subject to malfunction.

b. The gas port, cylinder, and operating rod are mounted above the barrel and are pro-'ccied by a handguard.

c. A gas regulator, with five different apertures, is incorporated in the gas port assem-bl> ind may be adjusted by means of a small wrench, without disassembling the rifle.

d. This rifle is fitted with a large three-baffle muzzle brake.

e. The detachable, slightly curved magazine has a capacity of fifteen rounds.

f. The stock is of one-piece design.

g. The handguard is clamped to the barrel and stock by a perforated sheet-metal guard.

h. The blade-type front sight, with open guard, may be adjusted for windage by tapping on the outside of the guard.

i_. The safety is located inside the trigger guard, just to the rear of the trigger.

j. The tangent rear sight, as found on the rifle M1891/30, has no provision for windage adjustment.

k. The cleaning rod is secured on the right side of the weapon, between the stock and the handguard, by means of three retainers.

Characteristics

Automatic rifle M1936

Semiautomatic rifle M1938

Semiautomatic rifle M1940

Weight, w/o bayonet & magazine

8.93 lb.

8.70 lb.

8.59 lb.

w/bayonet & magazine

----

10.8 lb.

9.48 lb.

Length, w/o bayonet

48.6 in.

48.1 in.

48.1 in.

w/bayonet

59.3 in.

60.84 in.

57.1 in.

Barrel length

24.16 in.

25 in.

24.6 in.

Magazine capacity

15 rounds

10 rounds

10 rounds

Instrumental velocity at 78 ft. w/hvy ball

2,519 f. p. s.

2,519 f. p. s.

2,519 f. p. s.

Rate of fire (semiautomatic)

30 - 40, rds. /min.

rds. /min.

rds. /min.

Maximum sighting range

1,500 meters

1,500 meters

1,500 meters

Front sight Rear sight

Open guard blade

Tangent

Hooded post Tangent

Hooded post Tangent

Principle of operation Ammunition

Gas

Gas

Gas

*7. 62-mm U.S.S.R., standard rifle and ground machinegun ammunition.

Automatic rifle M1940

Semiautomatic sniper rifle M1938

Semiautomatic sniper rifle M1940

8.35 lb.

9.52 lb.

9.18 lb.

9.24 lb.

----

----

48.1 in.

48.1 in.

48. I in.

57.1 in.

60.84 in.

57.1 in.

24.6 in.

25 in.

24.6 in.

10 rounds

10 rounds

10 rounds

rds. /min.

1,500 meters Hooded post

Hooded post

Telescope: ,300m.(l,430yd).

Gas *

L This rifle is fitted with a knife-type bayonet. 49. SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE M1938 (SVT)

a. The semiautomatic rifle M1938 (fig. 53) uses the same type of gas port, gas regula tor, and operating rod mounted above the barrel as the automatic rifle M1938.

b. This rifle is capable of semiautomatic fire only.

c. It has a two-piece stock (fig. 58) and two stock bands.

FIGURE 58. TWO-PIECE STOCK OF THE SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE M1938.

FIGURE 58. TWO-PIECE STOCK OF THE SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE M1938.

d. The slightly curved ten-round magazine is slightly. shorter than the magazine for the automatic rifle M1936.

e. Thi-¿»¡x-bafflemuzzle brake is permanently attached.

f. The fiat sight is the protected post type.

g. The rt ir sight is the tangent type, the same as found on the rifles M1891/30 and M1936.andha.>!.o provision for windage adjustment.

h. The kife-typebayonet is generally similar to that of the United States cal. 30 rifle Ml except t'-u.he bayonet catch is mounted on the rear of the bayonet grip.

i . Agro'.> Ms cut out on the right side of the two-piece stock for the cleaning rod. The two stock bands serve as cleaning rod retainers.

j .Tins rifle has a one-piece magazine release.

k. The safety is in the trigger guard, at the rear of the trigger. 50. SEMIAUTOMATIC RIFLE M1940 (SVT)

a. The mechanism of the semiautomatic rifle M1940 (fig. 54) is identical to that of the Ml 938.

b. It has a perforated sheet-metal guard forward of the stock and handguard.

c. The one-piece cleaning rod is fitted into the stock under the barrel, and is held in place by a spring catch on the bayonet lug.

d. The stock is of one-piece design.

e. The magazine release is the two-piece type.

f. The front sling swivel is on the left side of the rifle and is integral with the front band.

g. The bayonet is shorter than the Ml938 bayonet.

h. The two- or three-baffle muzzle brake is permanently attached (fig. 59).

FIGURE 59. SOVIET TWO-BAFFLE MUZZLE BRAKE.

FIGURE 59. SOVIET TWO-BAFFLE MUZZLE BRAKE.

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