Figure Framed Building Characteristics

(c) Frameless and framed material and structural characteristics. Urban structures, frameless and framed, fit certain material generalities. Table 3-2 converts the building type and material into height and wall thicknesses. Most worldwide urban areas have more than 60 percent of their construction formed from bricks. The relationship between the building height and the thickness of the average brick wall is shown in Table 3-3. Table 3-2. Urban Structure Material Thicknesses Table 3-2. Urban...

Law

The deployment of antiaircraft weapons can also be related to a consideration of building characteristics. An ideal type of building for such deployment is a modern parking garage (one with rooftop parking). It offers enough cover, a circulation pattern favoring such weapons carried on light vehicles, and frequently offers good lines of sight. e. Other Planning Considerations. Fighting and protective positions located inside urban buildings sometimes require...

Figure Frameless Building Characteristics

Framed structures typically have a skeletal structure of columns and beams that supports both vertical and horizontal loads. Exterior (curtain) walls are non-load bearing. Without the impediment of load-bearing walls, large open interior spaces offer little protection. The only available refuge is the central core of the reinforced concrete present in many of these buildings (such as the elevator shaft). Multistoried steel and concrete-framed structures occupy the...

Lesson Practice Exercise Answer Key And Feedback

Obstacles placed on the battlefield through military effort to strengthen natural obstacles B. Craters, seeded forests, or abatis C. Lakes, rivers, jungles, rubble, or minefields D. Already present on the battlefield and are not placed there through military effort (paragraph 4-1a) 2. What are the most critical questions in determining the location of obstacles A. How and where to get information concerning terrain and existing obstacles (paragraph 4-1a(2))...

Practice Exercise

Instructions The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, restudy that part of the lesson that contains the portion involved. 1. Existing obstacles are defined as A. Obstacles placed on the battlefield through military effort to strengthen natural obstacles B. Craters, seeded forests, or...

Introduction

Barbed wire entanglements are artificial obstacles designed to impede the movement of foot troops and, in some cases, tracked and wheeled vehicles. The materials used in constructing barbed wire entanglements are relatively lightweight and inexpensive, considering the protection they afford. Barbed wire entanglements can be breached by fire, but can be rapidly repaired and reinforced. 5-1. Siting and Layout of Wire. To be effective, barbed wire entanglements should be sited and laid out to meet...

Figure Boreholes for Positions in Flat Terrain

Circular positions are prepared with a circular arrangement of boreholes surrounding a borehole at the center of the position. Several concentric rings of holes are needed for large positions, and one ring or only one charge for small positions. When the position diameter does not exceed twice the borehole depth, a single charge placed at the center of the position is enough. When the position diameter is between two and four times the borehole depth, space three holes...

Fallout

Energy Distribution of Tactical Nuclear Weapons Figure 1-0. Energy Distribution of Tactical Nuclear Weapons (1) Blast. Blast in the overpressure shock wave forms from the detonation of the nuclear weapon. The blast wave destroys all objects in its path and its effects decrease with distance. (2) Thermal radiation. Thermal radiation sets fire to combustible materials and causes flash blindness or burns in the eyes, as well as personnel casualties from skin burns. (3) Nuclear...

Figure Low Wire Fence

This obstacle consists of two parallel 4-strand fences with a third 4-strand fence zigzagged between them to form triangular cells. With two rows of pickets as shown in Figure 5-28, the entanglements is classed as a belt with one or more additional rows of fences and triangular cells it is classed as a band. To add to the obstacle effect, front and rear aprons may be installed and spirals of loose wire may be placed in the triangular cells. A 300-meter section of...

Radius Vtfr

Head 1 2 mild steel plate welded to end of pipe Figure 5-10. Expedient Picket Driver Figure 5-10. Expedient Picket Driver (3) Arctic adapter. For erecting barbed wire obstacles with U-shaped drive pickets under conditions where frozen ground prevents driving the pickets, an Arctic adapter is available for anchoring the pickets. The adapter is made of steel and consists of a baseplate equipped with an adjustable channel receptacle and two anchor pins. It is anchored by driving the anchor pins...

Figure Test Results Triangular

Earthmoving equipment (M9 ACE, dozers, scrapers, and bucket loaders) can all be used for tank ditching and is much more effective if used in teams rather than alone. M9s, dozers, and scrapers are most effective, while bucket loaders are used as a last resort. Various combinations can be used. Some typical team configurations are be One M9 and two scoop loaders. Two or more tractor scrapers used in tandem. One M9, one dozer, and one tractor scraper used in tandem. (One M9 or dozer...

Info

The extent of building cover depends on the proportion of walls to windows. It is necessary to know the proportion of nonwindowed wall space, which might serve as protection. Frameless buildings, with their high proportion of walls to windows, afford more substantial cover than framed buildings having both a lower proportion of wall to window space and thinner (nonload bearing) walls. Composition and thickness of both exterior and interior walls also have a significant bearing on cover...

NOTE Scatterable mines Scatmines are reinforcing obstacles emplaced by different delivery systems such as artillery or

The commander's course of action will depend on the characteristics of the terrain and its intended use. The commander's action includes movement, maneuver, and weapons siting to destroy the enemy. Existing obstacles will dictate all ground movement (friendly or enemy). A good analysis of the terrain in the areas of influence and interest should answer the following questions Where are the mobility corridors and avenues of approach (Where will the enemy come from Where can...

Lesson Practice Exercise

Instructions The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, restudy that part of the lesson that contains the portion involved. 1. Why is it important to design a protective structure so that direct fire strikes it obliquely A. So that direct fire will not ricochet off the structure B. To...

Figure Integrating Reinforcing Obstacles

(c) Reinforcing obstacles are integrated with each other to assure that probable bypass routes are closed. For example, destruction of a major highway through a wooded area is ineffective if any nearby road or opening that offers a ready bypass route is left open. (Such destruction could be highly effective if friendly forces were seeking to divert the enemy along that bypass route.) Reinforcing obstacles can also be used to close gaps and lanes in other reinforcing obstacles. For example, a...

Disadvantages

Provides limited protection from direct fire while the occupant is firing a weapon, since frontal and side protection is negligible. Provides relatively no protection against fragments from overhead bursts of artillery shells. The larger the open excavation, the less the protection from artillery. Provides limited protection from chemical effects. In some cases, chemicals concentrate in low holes and excavations. b. Trenches. Trenches provide essentially the same protection from conventional,...

Figure High Wire Entanglement

For this operation the working party is divided into two groups two-thirds of the soldiers going to the first group and one third to the second. The first group carries and lays out pickets for the front row first at 3-meter intervals. Second row pickets are laid out in a line 3 meters to the rear of the front row and spaced midway between them. The first group also lays out an anchor picket in line with each end of each 4-strand fence, 3 meters from the nearest...

Camouflage

Detection of Objects or Terrain Disturbances. Modern sensing devices detect objects or terrain disturbances even though they are well camouflaged. These devices detect reflected shortwave and radiated long-wave infrared energy. Special video devices read infrared energy and detect dead or dying vegetation as well as objects painted similar to their surroundings. As a counter, special camouflage paint having a short-wave infrared response much like natural vegetation is available. The...

Figure Log Obstacles Example

Combat Engineer Log Obstacle

Log Obstacles Example 2 Figure 4-14. Log Obstacles Example 2 1 Log hurdles. Log hurdles Figures 4-13 and 4-14 can be constructed using logs greater than 10 inches in diameter. The size of the logs will dictate if the hurdles should be constructed of single logs or multiple logs tied together. On level ground, log hurdles will not stop tanks, but will cause them to slow down. Hurdles will improve the effectiveness of other obstacles by slowing enemy vehicles and making them more...

Figure Typical Two Way Deliberate Checkpoint

Picket the wire at both ends to prevent run-through. Ensure that the terrain requires vehicles and dismounted personnel to pass through the checkpoint. Position weapons and personnel to cover the entire checkpoint adequately. Picket the wire at both ends to prevent bull-through. Replace shicane wire with any passive vehicle barrier such as jersey barriers or 55-gallon drums filled with earth. Use a retaining fence to prevent the operator of a vehicle and personnel from escaping. The fence can...

Figure Test Results Rectangular

To deny the use of the triangular tank ditch as a fighting position for the attacking armor, the spoil should be spread loosely on the enemy side rather than used as a berm. This will also reduce tank traction when approaching the ditch. a Ditch construction. Effectiveness of the triangular ditch is determined by the depth and to a lesser amount of slope. The following should be considered The entrance slope is not critical in determining the effectiveness of triangular...

Figure Joining Concertina

Double Apron Fence

Fasten the bottom of the concertina to the ground by driving a staple over each pair of end hoops, one over the bottom of a coil at each long picket, and one at the l 2 and l 4 points of the 3.8-meter picket spacing. Securing the front concertina to the ground is essential and must be done before installing another concertina in its rear unless the enemy side of the entanglement is sure to be accessible later. Step 4. Stretch a barbed wire strand along the top of each front row and...

Hasty Ground Fighting Position

Army Hasty Fighting Position

3All depths are approximate and will need adjustment for surrounding terrain and fields of fire. Production rate of 100 bank cubic yards per 0.75 hour. Divide construction time by 0.85 for rocky or hard soil, night conditions, or closed hatch operations M9 . Use of natural terrain features will reduce construction time. 1 Hasty fighting positions. Hasty fighting positions for combat vehicles and mortar carriers take advantage of natural terrain features or are prepared with a minimum of...

Figure Triple Standard Concertina Fence

Concertina Fence

A 300-meter section of triple-standard concertina fence is a platoon task. It normally requires less than 1 hour to construct. There are two operations carrying and laying out pickets and concertina rolls and installing pickets and opening and installing concertinas. b. First Operation. For the first operation, the work party is divided into three groups of about equal size one to lay out all pickets, one to install all pickets, and one to lay out all concertina rolls. 1 The first...

Figure Pickets for Use With Barbed Wire

The screw picket Figure 5-9 is screwed into the ground by turning it in a clockwise direction using a drift pin, stick, or another picket inserted in the bottom eye of the picket for leverage. The bottom eye is used in order to avoid twisting the picket. Screw pickets are installed so that the eye is to the right of the picket, as seen from the friendly side. This allows standard ties to be made easily. Screw pickets tend to be less rigid than other types, but are desirable...

Figure Schematic Layout of Barbed Wire Entanglements in a Defensive Area

These are sited parallel to and along the friendly side of the final protective line FPL . They are used to break up enemy attack formations and to hold the enemy in areas covered by the most intense defensive fire. Tactical entanglements extend across the entire front of a position, but are not necessarily continuous. b Protective wire entanglements. These are located to prevent surprise assaults from points close to the defense area. As in the case of all...

Figure Combination Bands of Wire Obstacles

Barbed wire obstacles are constructed primarily from issue materials, thus, both logistical and construction estimates are involved. Table 5-1 gives weights, lengths, and other data required for estimating truck transportation and carrying party requirements. Table 5-2 gives the material and labor requirements for construction of various wire entanglements. 5-19. Defensive Position Requirements. Wire obstacles for defensive positions require estimating the material...

Figure Barbed Steel Tape

Splicing Barbed Steel Tape Figure 5-8. Splicing Barbed Steel Tape a. Handling. In handling barbed steel tape, heavy barbed tape gauntlets should be used instead of the standard gauntlets. Small metal clips on the palm and fingers prevent the barbs of the tape from cutting the leather. The lightweight of the barbed tape and compactness is much easier to handle, store, and transport than barbed wire. b. Issue. Barbed tape comes in seven modules 20 meters per module per package. One...

Area size

Concealment of all-around position defense. Camouflage begins before the unit moves in to occupy the site. Vehicles are carefully controlled in their movements so that telltale tracks do not lead directly to a camouflaged position. All traffic should move on existing roads or trails or follow tree lines. b. Occupation Stage. Occupation is achieved with a carefully controlled traffic plan, which is strictly followed. Guides posted at route junctions are fully aware of the camouflage plan and...