Wind Energy DIY Guide
The effects of wind vary depending on changes in wind speed and direction. Wind is classified by the direction it is blowing in relationship to the firer target line. The clock system is used to indicate wind direction and value (Figure F-8, page F-8). Winds that blow from the left (9 o'clock) or right (3 o'clock) are called full-value winds, because they have the most effect on the bullet. Winds that blow at an angle from the front or rear area are called half-value winds, because they have about one-half the effect on the bullet as full-value winds. Winds that blow straight into the firer's face or winds that blow straight into the target are termed no-value winds, because their effect on the bullet is too small to be concerned with.
Even if you have gauges available, however, you still must learn other wind estimation methods in order to read distant winds. Our four-panel illustration on page 352 shows ways in which the effects of wind can be read to indicate wind speed. A 3-5 mph wind is felt lightly on your face a 5-8 mph wind causes leaves in trees to agitate continuously an 8-12 mph wind will raise dust and blow around loose paper and a 12-15 mph wind causes small trees and bushes to sway. The pointing method, also shown on page 352, requires that you drop a handkerchief or balled-up piece of paper from the height of your shoulder. To determine wind speed, point to where it landed and estimate the angle between your arm and bod . Then divide this angle by four to learn the wind speed. In our illustration, the angle is 60 degrees dividing by four yields 15, which means the wind speed is 15 mph.
There are two methods used to determine wind velocity observation and flag. The flag method is used as a training tool on the known distance (KD) range to learn the observation method. This method teaches Marines to relate the effect a given wind condition has on the natural surroundings in order to develop the base of knowledge used during the observation method. The observation method is the primary method used to estimate wind velocity and direction in a tactical situation. The following are guidelines used during the observation method
When firing during windy conditions and there is no time to make sight adjustments, the SDM must use hold- off to adjust for windage (Figure 7-40, page 7-56). When holding off, the SDM aims into the wind. If the wind is moving from the right to left, his point of aim is to the right. If the wind is moving from left to right, his point of aim is to the left. Constant practice in wind estimation can bring about proficiency in making sight adjustments or learning to apply hold-off correctly. If the SDM misses the target and the point of impact of the round is observed, he notes the lateral distance of his error and re-fires, holding off that distance in the opposite direction. Table 7-10, page 7-56, shows calculated adjusted aiming points based on wind speed. Table 7-10. Calculated adjusted aiming point based on wind speed Table 7-10. Calculated adjusted aiming point based on wind speed
The shooter should not place too much reliance on indications of flags high above the line of targets and the firing line. In addition, do not accept the indications of flags flying at the edge of a forest, steep precipice, ravine, or depressions, since the wind speed, at various levels of the atmosphere and terrain are different. It is necessary to be guided by the indications of high grass, tall weeds, strips of paper, etc. in the vicinity, which are nearer the level of the weapon-target line.
The effects of wind vary depending on changes in wind speed and direction. Wind is classified by the direction it is blowing in relationship to the firer-target line. The clock system is used to indicate wind direction and value (Figure 5-27, page 5-28). (2) Wind Speed. Wind is highly variable and sometimes quite different at the firing position than at the target position. Even though the wind is blowing hard at the firing line, trees, brush, or terrain could protect the bullet path. The wind can vary by several miles per hour between the time a measurement is taken and when the bullet is fired. Therefore, training time should not be wasted trying to teach soldiers an exact way to measure wind speed. Soldiers should understand that the wind can blow the bullet off course but they should not overcompensate and miss targets because of applying too much hold-off. A wind gauge can be used for precise measurement of wind velocity. When a gauge is not available,...
Wind is highly variable and sometimes quite different at the firing position than at the target position. Even though the wind is blowing hard at the firing position, trees, brush, or terrain could protect the path of the round. The wind can vary by several miles per hour between the time a measurement is taken and when the round is fired. Therefore, training time should not be wasted trying to teach gunners an exact way to measure wind speed. They should know that even though wind can affect trajectory, it can be overcome by adjusting fire. A wind gauge can be used for precise measurement of wind velocity. When a gauge is not available, velocity is estimated by one of the following methods. (2) Pointing Method. A piece of paper or other light material can be dropped from shoulder height. By pointing directly at the spot where it lands, the angle can be estimated. As shown in Figure 4-11, the angle is also divided by the constant number 4 to determine the wind...
Some shooters believe that regardless of the wind velocity, no changes should be made in their shooting positions. The technique is to remain in the aiming position and wait for a slight lull, reestablish the rifle hold on the bull's-eye and fire the shot. Other shooters feel that waiting for a lull is best in a moderate wind, but in a strong wind they deem it necessary to exercisc greater control of the rifle muzzle. 2. A second method is to estimate the wind velocity change, correct the sights the prescribed amount and fire. An experienced shooter is capable of exceptional control in this method and may fire a fine score. Familiarity with the range and its peculiar conditions can be very important when shooting in this manner, b. During a rain, the wind flags become wet and heavy and thus useless for detecting minor wind velocity changes. In a light rain small wind variations can be easily seen by watching the angle of the rain as it is falling. In a heavy rain, a large wind...
There are two methods used to determine wind velocity observation 12 determine wind velocity and direction in a tactical situation. The following are guidelines 22 Perform the following steps to determine wind velocity in miles per hour 24 Divide the angle by four to determine wind velocity in miles per hour. See figure
If the wind below 1,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) exceeds 90 degrees, and deviates in excess of 45 degrees frcm the long axis of the landing site, the land heading should be adjusted or an aircraft advisory issued. The allowable wind velocity decreases as the density altitude increases. Because of the design of the helicopter, if can only accept a minimun velocity of wind frcm certain directions.
A wind gage can be used for precise measurement of wind velocity. When a gage is not available, velocity is estimated by one of the following methods Flag method. If the firer can observe a flag or any clothlike material hanging from a pole, he should be able to estimate the angle formed at the juncture of the flag and pole. As shown in Figure F-10, dividing this angle by the constant number 4 equals the wind velocity in mph.
Marked variation in temperature over a limited area will be found. For every limited area, there will be a critical value of wind velocity, which for most areas is probably not far from 3 miles per hour. As long as the wind velocity remains higher than 3 miles per hour, these pockets of air will be removed and mixed with air at other points and no variation in temperature will be found. Since the question of variation in temperature depends upon the interplay between the drainage of colder air and the ability of the wind to remove these pockets of cold air, the variation will depend not only upon the elevation but also upon the openness of the valleys, their direction, the roughness of the surface, and the direction from which the wind comes.
After identifying wind direction, wind classification, and wind velocity, windage adjustments needed to enable the bullet to strike the target are estimated in the following ways Observation Method. Using the windage chart provided in figure 8-4, match the wind velocity, wind direction, and range to the target to the information in the chart to estimate the correct number of clicks to apply to the windage knob. Flag Method. Using the windage chart provided in figure 8-5, match the wind velocity, wind direction, and range to the target to the information in the chart to determine the correct number of clicks to apply to the windage knob.
Varmint and target shooters will like the inexpensive pocket Dwyer Wind Meter, that registers wind speeds of 2 to 10 m.p.h. on one scale, or up to 70 m.p.h. on another. (S4.95 from Peddler's Cart, Hubbard Woods Sta., Winnetka, 111.) Quite accurate, you quickly learn exactly how to dope a given wind on paper targets, and can duplicate your results in the field, with the best of the wind dopers. When the little ball registers up on the high scale, it's a good time to go home and refill some more hulls
Screening smokes may also be generated from candles, shells, bombs, or airplanes. When a smoke screen is generated from candles, the wind must, be in the proper direction to accomplish the desired result. It must usually blow toward the enemy. Here again, and for the same reasons as stated above, the upper velocity limit should not be exceeded. The lower limit is not so important since, even if the wind did reverse itself, the screening smokes are harmless to personnel. Steadiness of the wind is important with screening smokes so the smoke cloud or screen will not l c torn asunder, leaving ga s through which the enemy may see. Generally, variations in wind velocity are accompanied by variations in the wind direction, even as much as 180 degrees. Large wind-direction changes, occurring at rapid intervals, often produce turbulent conditions, cnjk*-cially if accompanied by large velocity changes. Wind and Safety Limits. Since the successful use of nonpersistent agents is largely...
Renewable Energy 101
Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.