World War I Ebooks Catalog
During World War I, large numbers of this model were converted to take the standard German army cartridge, for the Pistole 08, or 9 millimeter Luger cartridge as it is known in this country. These pistols are distinguishable from the standard 7.63mm type by the figure 9 usually painted or burned into the grips. This type of pistol used the standard 9mm Luger cartridge as manufactured in the United States, prior to World War II. With the ending of World War I, the Mauser factory was not permitted under the terms of the treaty of Versailles to manufacture the 7.63mm with the standard barrel. By a subterfuge, it was decided that the pistol might be manufactured with a barrel a fraction under 4 inches, including the chamber length. This model had the same action as the standard Mauser used during the War, but its grip was modeled after the old 1905 model. This type will often be found with Swiss markings. It was also widely distributed in the United States as an export weapon, fitted with...
About 1937, a research group was set up. Later on, as a direct result of World War II, the headquarters of the development organization was evacuated to Unterliis and the moving of various kinds of equipment and documents from other sections followed. The workers at Rheinmctall-Borsig had a slogan to which much of their superior work was attributable We do not know that this will not work let us try it rather than the stultifying converse, We do not think this will work we will not try it. Examples of this attitude, among many, are the Munchausen 56-centimeter recoilless gun, made on the Davis principle and designed to be carried 011 aircraft, and the work on bent barrels designed to shoot around corners. The quality of the workmanship on weapons is what mattered the most, and at no time during World War II did the organization allow quality to become debased by wartime conditions. On the other hand, no effort was wasted in applying an unnecessary degree of finish in places where it...
Except for minor external features, this arm is the same as the German Kar. 98 of World War I. Some later models of this Polish manufacture also have the modified bolt and magazine of the Kar. 98k. Latest pattern Polish designs are even stocked like the Kar. 98k. Polish rifles were made at Warsaw and Radom arsenals. OTHER GERMAN SERVICE ARMS IN WORLD WAR II 4. Kar. 98K with modified stock. 5. Gewehr 98-40 (not a Mauser). This is a turning bolt modified Mannlicher-Hungarian type. Cal. 7.92 mm. 6. Gew. 33-40. Cal. 7.92 mm. Modified Czech Mauser System.
First in the field were the Germans, with a weapon which set a trend which continues to this day the 13mm MG TuF, for Tank unci Flieger, the intended targets. (There is an alternative view that this designation referred to the TuF being fitted to tanks and aircraft and there is one report of a Fokker D.VII being experimentally equipped with this gun. However, the only published photograph shows one on a wheeled carriage, and the water-cooled barrel does not indicate aircraft use.) This was a Maxim-type gun, essentially a scaled-up version of the infantry's 7.92mm MG08. While there had been various pre-war experiments with large-calibre machine guns such as the .50 Colt-Kynoch (or North), the TuF was the original heavy machine gun in the modern idiom, and although it was developed too late to see service in the war (about fifty were built) all current HMGs owe something to this gun. Also under development at the end of the First World War was the Browning HMG, a gun which survives in...
The following drawings represent aircraft guns of between 12.7 and 57mm calibre which saw service in the Second World War, together with some models which saw only experimental use. They have been compiled from a wide range of sources, mainly photographic and of varying quality. They are therefore not precise scale drawings, and detailed measurements should not be taken from them. They are included here to give an impression of the general appearance and relative size, as they have all been drawn to approximately the same scale (a one-metre scale bar is included on each page). It should be noted that the detailed appearance could alter between different versions of a gun, and some had significant variations in barrel length. All guns are drawn in side view unless otherwise stated. All guns are belt-fed unless otherwise stated. Magazine-fed guns are sometimes shown with the magazine (where the shape is known), sometimes not.
With Germany, at which time Browning, along with other inventors, was asked to submit weapons with a view of adoption. It is true that there had been earlier trials ol various machine gun mechanisms of both American and foreign man-ulacture. But nothing resulted from them except a passive interest by our Government. Thus, although we had practically two years to prepare after the start of World War 1 before Ave entered and it was almost a foregone conclusion that we were to be a participant, there had been no effec tive machine gun program in spite of the early
Desperate shortages of arms occurrcd in Russia soon after World War I began. Agents were sent Figure 1-7. In World War I, Russian Inspectors at the Marlin-Hockwell Corporation. New Haven. Conn. Guns being accepted Figure 1-7. In World War I, Russian Inspectors at the Marlin-Hockwell Corporation. New Haven. Conn. Guns being accepted office was the forerunner of the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Bureaus of the Ministry of Armaments, which supervised the design and production of at least a million machine guns in World War II. The largest proving ground of the USSR was located at Anapa in the Crimea, on the shores of the Black Sea. There the Artillery Academy conducted tests of machine guns and pistols. The principal work was in the field of exterior ballistics. From 1928 on, the testing laboratory worked out procedures for maintenance of weapons. Each year up to World War II, the laboratory published some new temporary rules for the maintenance of arms. Boris Gabrielovich...
Japanese forces were equipped with the 6.5111m Type 38 rifle, Type 38 carbine, and Type 44 carbine for a long time prior to World War II and large quantities of these weapons were used throughout the war. The older 6.5mm Type 30 rifle and carbine were also frequently encountered during the war. After 1 heir experiences in China and Manchuria the Japanese decided they needed a heavier caliber rifle. They had adopted a 7.7111111 semi-rimmed cartridge for use in a heavy machine gun Type 92 in 1932 and wished to standardize ammunition. In April 1938, a formal requirement was laid down for a 7.7111111 rifle. Four trial rifles were submitted including one each from Nagoya and Kokura arsenals. Two of the models were carbines modeled on the Type 38 and Type 44 carbines. Proving ground tests at Futsu Proving Ground Japanese Semiautomatic Rifles Japan experimented with a number of semiautomatic rifles prior to World War II. Among these was the U.S. designed Pedersen with a rotary magazine which...
Following World War I, the exclusive rights to manufacture the B. A. R. (Browning Automatic Rifle) reverted to the Colt's Co. The Belgian Fabrique Nationale d*Amies de Guerre at Ilerstal, Belgium, was licensed in 1920 to manufacture and distribute the weapon in Europe, under the name Herstal light machine gun. along with many other Browning-designed guns.
6.5mm version of 7.35mm Rifle Mi938. made after beginning of World War II 6 5mm version of 7.35mm Carbine M1938, made after beginning of World War II 6.5mm version of 7.35mm Carbine M1938 TS, made after beginning of World War II Notes 1. All the pre*World War II 6.5mm weapons have right-hand gain twist (progressive) 19.25 to 8.25 7.35mm weapons have constant right-hand 10-inch twist. 2. All weapons use 6-round Mannlicher type clips. 3. Some of the Model 1938 weapons were made in 7.92x57mm Mauser for the Germans during World War II. 4. Caliber is marked on sight base of all 1938 series weapons.
World War Development 533 Principal Gas Attacks in World War 66'j Increasing Use of Gas during World War 6S0 From the dawn of antiquity to the present century men have fought their battles by physical blows, and it was not until the World War that the history of organized conflict recorded a deviation from this fundamental principle of battle. This result was foreshadowed in our own Civil War, to be grimly demonstrated in the World War. In the latter conflict there were, at least on the Western Front, no flanks to be turned. Yet the alwence of exposed flanks was here no more than proof that, given sufficient modern rifles and guns, and enough soldiers to man them, a battle front may be extended until it defies outflanking. Linear formations are then reinforced in depth so that substantial penetration becomes prohibitive and the task of subduing a belligerent must be accomplished by economic instead of military force. History records numerous earlier but abortive attempts to utilize...
It is appropriate that the background of Rheinuietall-Borsig A. G., tlie giant of the Geilnau munitions industry in World War II, be nisms. The company prospered from government contracts for artillery and ammunition. A large volume of business for the same materials was also carried on with foreign governments, and at the outbreak of World War f Rheinmctall was second only to the great firm of Friedrich Krupp A. G. in the field of munitions.
The ITispano-Suiza Co. of Geneva, Switzerland, has had great international influence on the development of aircraft armament. Founded early in the century as ari automobile plant with factories in Switzerland, Spain, and France, it branched into aircraft engine and automatic weapon design. The story of the development of the Hispano-Suiza type 404 aircraft gun and its adoption as a basic weapon bv Great Britain and the United Slates in World War II is given in The Machine Gun, volume I, chapter 14, pages 562-590. Since World War II, the firm has centered its research activities in its Swiss headquarters.
World War Comparison of all the modern rifles used in the World War reveals dead uniformity on both sides. Excepting the U. S. Model 1918 Automatic, all were bolt action and followed closely the generalities of the superannuated Mauser. Such a condition reveals a long-continued and very had state of stagnation in arms development. Of course it is axiomatic that had any nation at the beginning of war possessed a radically better weapon and a soldiery who were masters of it the war would have had a These two patterns of rifles were used in the World War by Great Britain and her Colonial troops, except that at the beginning her Canadians used the Ross rifle (see page 267).
In 1895 Argentina purchased a quantity of rifles from Germany based on the Spanish 1893 Mauser design. Later rifles based on the Gewehr 98 pattern were purchased from both Germany and Spain. Caliber before World War I was uniformly 7.65mm Mauser. Some in 7.92mm caliber have since been delivered.
The Italian Air Force during World War I was so desperate lor an adequate rifle-caliber machine gun of native origin that it ordered the lightening of the water-cooled 1914 model Revel li. This was accomplished by the removal of the water jacket and use of an air-cooled barrel with longitudinal ribs. It not only gave more cooling surface but also strengthened the barrel, cutting down dispersion. The rate of fire was increased by use of ammunition more thoroughly lubricated by means of a built-in oil pump. While the modifications definitely improved the ground gun, it was still far front an ideal aircraft weapon. After limited use the Italians went back to the reliable synchronized Vickers fot fixed in-stallations and the Lewis gun for flexible mount-
The fragmentation grenade (A, fig. 6-2) has a thin metal body about the size and shape of a lemon, and weighs one pound. It is approximately 2.25 inches in diameter at the center and 3 inches long, unfuzed (3.9 inches long, fuzed). The body is lined with a notched, wire, fragmentation coil and contains 6 ounces of Composition B filler. This type of grenade was developed to replace the earlier model fabricated with a deeply serrated cast iron body (the pineapple World War I grenade). Fragmentation grenades are fused with either impact detonating or delay detonating fuzes composed of a striker, primer and delay charge detonator. A booster may be included. A safety lever, curved to conform to the shape of the grenade body, is hooked to the top of the fuze. The lever is held in place by a safety pin (pull ring), which protects the striker from action of the striker spring. In addition, grenades may have a second safety clip which fits around the lever. This provides a second means of...
Undated booklets issued by the factory at some time prior to World War II give short descriptions of the eleven models which had been developed. These models are given catalog numbers which are not consistent with the dates of introduction of the various models. Obviously model designations were not assigned to each model at the time of its introduction, but were chosen at some later date for the probable purpose of identification of the different types available to the customer and to assist him in ordering. The model numbers start at No. 10, for some unexplained reason, and continue to Mod. No. 21. They appear in 6.35, 7.65, and 9 mm. calibers. No .22 caliber pistols were produced until after the end of World War II. Each of the eleven pre-war models will now be discussed briefly.
At the conclusion of World War 1, the French Air Ministry was faced with deciding on an improved aircraft cannon to arm France's outstanding Air Force. The choice was not easy, hut attention was eventually focused on the reliable Hotchkiss system that had served France so faithfully throughout the years. In the opinion of the French, this automatic firing mechanism when made in rifle cali-bcr resulted in the most dependable machinc gun in the world, and they could see no logical reason why it would not prove to be just as successful if scaled up to handle a larger cartridge. All development work done on this aircraft cannon version was carried on in the greatest sccrccy. The gas orifice was purposely set so as to deliver a rate of fire between 150 to 200 rounds a minute. In armor piercing tests, 1 inches of the best armor plate was pierced at 7U0 yards as was -inch plate at 2,000 yards. After satisfying themselves that the operating principles were sound, French engineers proceeded...
From the latter days of World War I and particularly in the early stages of World War II, the rapid strides being made in the improvement of military aircraft confronted the gun industries of the world with an urgent and difficult problem. The new conditions of air combat made it imperative to have guns with greater muzzle velocity, larger calibcr, and higher rates of fire. In response to this demand, the machine gun was advanced in tremendous strides until it reached calibers that formerly were considered in the domain of artillery and achieved rates of fire that were comparable with those formerly obtained with rifle caliber guns. In spite of these successes, the cvcr-increasing demands for even greater power and higher rates of fire continued and it became apparent at last that each succeeding improvement was accomplished with much greater difficulty than the last. In fact, it is generally conceded by many prominent gun designers and ordnancc experts that, considering
A prototype of the successful Bergmann World War I gun could appropriately be called the Model 1915. This weapon had a few lea-tures that were found by test to be unnecessary. It had larger holes in the barrel jacket, which was itself of greater dimensions. The so-called 1915 gun was rear seared and at the end of a burst a spring-loaded device caught and held the bolt in the cocked position. A pull on the
The German (Government had prepared well for the inevitable conflict known as World War I. It decided early that machine guns would play a dominant role and concluded from secret tests that the Maxim machine gun, as it was still known in Germanv. was the most reliable firing
The original models of the T34 were built by Oldsmobile. The principal importance of the model is the fact that it was the connecting link between the M3 and the Mk 12 guns. Before this high-speed weapon could be perfected, World War II ended, and all activity conccrning the development of the T34 was dropped. There was a lull
This rigidity, I should warn, only applies in peacetime. Never forget that necessity dictates in war and that all doctrine and tactics are subject to change once the bullets start flying. During World War II, Soviet snipers were organized into two-man teams and independent platoons in Afghanistan, mujahideen riflemen became such a bloody menace that Soviet airborne units issued triple the normal number of SVD rifles, and some companies created special antisnipcr squads of three to five SVD riflemen.
More favourable as there is in peace an established commercial industry. In that field in the u.k. there is already satisfactory co-ordination between contract and inspection policy. The vast field of armaments presents a variety of different problems, but even so, much has been done since World War II, within the limitations of the existing system, to prepare the way for further co-ordination at higher level.
This rifle was such a revolutionary development in the art of war that a fairly complete description of it is warranted here. Furthermore, millions of these rifles were distributed throughout the world, very large numbers having been sold in the U. S., particularly by the firm of Bannerman of N. Y. C. Moreover, they appeared in some quantity in use even in World War II in Europe. Ammunition for them was generally manufactured in Europe as late as 1937. Large numbers of them were adapted first in the late Ws and later in the early '20's to handling shot gun shells. These arms therefore may be encountered in the U. S. in general use as well as in arms collections.
After high-profile Ideal Calibre Panel deliberation and extensive tests, the 7mm (.280 30) round and bullpup EM2 came close to making the change in the mid 1950's self-loading rifle trials had been well under way in England soon after the end of the 2nd World War. The scene was set for the introduction of a rimless cartridge and a self-loading rifle but politics and pressure from the new NATO alliance resulted in the final direction towards the .30 T65 round (later adopted as the 7.62 x 51mm NATO) and Belgian Fabrique Nationale's Fusil Automatique Legere or Light Automatic Rifle with its tilting breech-block system.
As part of the rush to dive headfirst into the First World War, the government used a media blitz (sound familiar ) to generate a significant anti-German sentiment. Hating the Hun and all things German was our patriotic duty (politically correct). One of the victims of this hate was the sport of Schuetzen. The clubs quietly stacked arms and disbanded.
Early examples include ammunition smuggled into Ireland in 1914, ammunition supplied to General Franco in the Spanish Civil War and British manufactured ammunition supplied to the Norwegian underground during World War II. More recently, the United States has supplied clandestine ammunition for use in the Bay of Pigs operation in Cuba and to the underground in Cambodia.
The history behind the Model 52 is equally extraordinary. It first appeared in 1919 and was shot at the National Rifle Matches that very year. It was a favorite of returning veterans after World War I because of its bolt action design that utilized a removable magazine. Many consider it one of the most significant factors in the growth of small-bore target shooting in the United States.
Some years later, prior to World War I but probably not earlier than 1910, a very different type of pocket pistol made by Theodor Bergmann Maschinen u. Waffenfabrik of Gaggenau (Baden) and Suhl (Thuringia) appeared. Presumably, production was stopped by World War I. In 1920 several pre-war firms, including the Lignose powder company, combined to form the firm Aktien Gesellschaft Lignose-Berlin, which appears to have been primarily a sales organization. This firm marketed several but not all of these newer models of Bergmann pistols under the name Akt. Gesellschaft Lignose - Abt. Suhl, i.e., the Suhl Division of the parent firm in Berlin. The pistols sold by them have the word LIGNOSE on the grips. The Bergmann model nomenclature was not changed. Commercial sale was continued through the 1920's, apparently under both the Bergmann and Lignose names, and later under the name of Lignose. Production seems to have stopped somewhere in the 1930's. Some of the Bergmann-marked pistols (Mods. 2...
In American-made hand guns the most common numbers of lands and grooves are 5 and 6, though others have been used. Hopkins and Allen, Plant's Mfg. Co., D. Moore, Remington (.50 cal. 1867 Navy Pistol), American Standard Tool Co., Iver Johnson, and others have used three-groove rifling, but no guns in current production have three grooves. Two-groove rifling was used for the M-3 Machine Gun during World War II, but apparently never has been used in pistols or revolvers, and probably will not be. Four-groove rifling is very uncommon in U.S.made hand guns but the Schall Company used it in their .22 cal. pistol. In foreign countries four-groove rifling is still common though several have changed to six-groove. Seven-groove rifling is no longer used in the U.S., although it was used in the Mod. 51 Remington automatic pistol, in a number of early Colt pistols, and by the Metropolitan Arms Co. Abroad it has been used extensively by Webley and Scott in England, and was also used in some of the...
Hugo Schmeisser was with Haenel during World War II and through 1945, but when the Soviet forces took over he went east. Whether this was done voluntarily or not is not known. The current Soviet rifle is said to be a bare-faced imitation of Schmeisser's last German design, the MP45 Haenel.
The Ortgies pistols are unique in design, although inevitably they have some features in common with other automatic pistols. The pistol was designed by Heinrich Ortgies, said to have been a German by birth but who was a resident of Liege, Belgium, until about the close of World War I. The first prototypes are thought to have been made in Belgium in 191516. The pistol has an outward appearance similar to the F.N. Browning Mod. 1910, but internally it is quite different (Fig. 222). Some time soon after World War I, Ortgies went to Erfurt where he organized the firm Ortgies and Co. to manufacture his pistol. Production of the 7.65 mm. pistol seems to have started in 1920, and because the weapons were attractive in appearance and were well made they soon attained popularity, which fact naturally attracted the notice of other manufacturers, including Deutsche Werke, A.G., of Erfurt. This firm purchased the rights, tools, designs, and unfinished parts from Ortgies and Co. but just when...
Up to World War I the revolver was the side arm used by the French military forces. In that war there was a shortage of revolvers but in nearby Spain there were many manufacturers who could supply automatic pistols, and many hundreds of thousands were so obtained. These pistols were of the modified Browning type so common in Spain. These are sometimes known as the Ruby type, because in 1914 Gabilondo y Urresti of Eibar obtained a patent on the pistol which covered this name also and because the first orders of pistols from Spanish manufacturers were obtained by this firm. As the demands from the French far exceeded the ability of this firm to produce, other firms were soon engaged in supplying the same type of pistol. Following World War I the French military service began the development of an automatic pistol that would be acceptable for military use. By 1925 they had produced at St. Etienne a blowback type of pistol bearing the inscription M.A.S. 1925 M No. 1. The serial number of...
Alkartasuna Fabrica de Armas was one of the Spanish pistol manufacturers of lesser importance, but they did play a part in World War I and many specimens of their product are to be found in this country, having been brought back by returning soldiers. This firm was organized during World War I, in 1917, to manufacture (under license) the Ruby automatic pistol originated by Gabilondo y Urresti in 1914.
Just prior to World War I, it was discovered that thiocyanate chlorate mixtures were sensitive to impact. These, however, had the same drawbacks as straight chlorate primers, that is, they produced corrosive residues on firing. The first true non-corrosive, non-mercuric (NCNM) primers were commercially produced in America between 1935 and 1938. These, however, did not meet the stringent US government specifications as to storage, misfires, and so on, and military ammunition continued to use the old corrosive chlorate mixtures right through World War II.
The first military automatic pistol used in Switzerland was the German Parabellum (Luger ), which they selected for use in 1901. From that time to sometime in 1914, when World War I broke out, the Swiss were provided with these pistols from the D.W.M. factory in Berlin. As further supplies were cut off, it became necessary to develop another source, so the
Some time prior to World War II the Germans not only started to make weapons which were forbidden by the Versailles Treaty but they also devised a system of code numbers which were assigned to the firms who were supplying material for the Government. Manufacturers names were not used. At the close of World War I the Germans were allowed to have a Police Army of 100,000 men, and to equip this force Simson & Co. of Suhl were given the task of assembling Lugers from material left over at the end of the war. As this firm happened to be the 42nd on the list of Government suppliers it was assigned the code number 42, and this was used until this firm ceased its independent existence in the early or middle 1930s and was succeeded by Mauser who had taken over the manufacture of the Luger from D.W.M. Antisemitic feeling was running high in Germany at this time and Simson was forced out. The firm, now under Aryan control, continued to operate for some time, perhaps into 1937. The following list...
Makarov blowback-oper-ated automatic pistol is one of many new weapons adopted by Russia since World War II. The pistol is generally similar in appearance and basic design to the German Model PP Walther pistol. It is called PM (Pistolet Makarov) by the Russians in accordance with their current weapons designation system which includes abbreviations of weapons type and designer's name.
Pistols chambered for the .32 Automatic cartridge are commonly of blowback design. An exception is the Frommer Stop automatic pistol which operates on the long-recoil system. Developed by Rudolf Frommer, a Hungarian arms designer, this pistol was produced by the Small Arms and Machine Works, Inc., Budapest, Hungary. It was introduced commercially about 1911 or 1912, and was offered in .380 Automatic as well as .32 Automatic calibers. During World War I, it was extensively used in .32 Automatic caliber by the Austro-Hungarian Army and police. Many found their way to the U.S. later.
All of the above-mentioned (except Mod. H-DM ) are pre-World War II models and all were discontinued in 1942 because of the advent of that war. During the first part of World War II the company was engaged in the manufacture of machine gun barrels for the British and later for the U.S. Ordnance Department. This led to a separation of the commercial part of the business from the military, and in 1941 the High Standard Manufacturing Corporation was formed to manufacture pistols, gun barrels, etc. This new corporation acquired new space and increased its personnel and facilities for producing gun barrel drills, .30 caliber Browning machine gun barrels, .45 caliber pistol barrels, rifle
World War I had ground to a standstill in the trenches and probably would have ended in a negotiated settlement between the Allies and the Central Powers had the U.S. not entered the war on the Allied side in the spring of 1917. The British SMLE and German M98 Mauser rifles which dominated the conflict weTe superb weapons for long range, deliberate fire, but they were hardly suited to the quick, close in work that resulted when one side decided to go over the top and assault the enemy's trenches. While the U.S. relied heavily on the Winchester M97 shotgun, the Germans went to work on designing a compact, lightweight automatic weapon that could be used to achieve the same results. Even while protesting the inhumane shotgun the Americans were using, the Germans were developing the MP-18 (Machinen Pistole 1918). The machine pistol handle was actually a misnomer, since the MP-18 looked very much like a conventional semiautomatic rifle. However, it was chambered for the 9mm Para-bellum...
As has been mentioned, Mauser's first attempt to devise a blowback pistol was aimed at producing a military model. After his Modell 1909 failed, work was continued and, by adding retarding bars under the slide, a fairly successful 9 mm. Parabellum design was attained by the end of 1912. This Modell 1912 was unique in that it was intended for a boattailed bullet. It could accept a holster-shoulder stock and was large in size. This model was adopted by Brazil in 1913 and Mauser was given a contract, but for what quantity is not known. Further improvements, particularly the incorporation of a radial rear sight, were made and the pistol was given the new designation of Modell 1912 14. Work was also started on a .45 caliber version of this new model, but the intervention of World War I put a stop to production of pistols on the Brazilian contract and to work on the .45. Several hundred of the 1912 and 1912 14 models were produced during the three-year period and these were put into German...
Anschiitz was one of the first West German manufacturers to enter the market after World War II. They produce a complete line of rifles from single-shot bolt-action .22 and 9mm models to Olympic-class .22 target rifles, high-power bolt-action rifles and a semi-automatic rifle. Some of the Anschiitz rifles are sold in the United States by Savage under the Savage-Anschutz label. They differ from the rifles sold by Anschiitz under its own name in various detail. All are high quality arms.
The Second World War The Second World War commenced with RCMGs dominating aircraft armament, supplemented by a few HMGs and low-powered 20mm cannon. It soon became evident that aircraft could be protected reasonably well against RCMG fire, which led to a rapid increase in the use of HMGs World War 2 fighter gun cartridges (from left to right) .50 Browning (12.7 X 99), Hispano HS 404 AN-M2 (20 x 110), 37mm M41M10 (37 x 145R), IJN 13mm Type 3 (13.2 x 99), IJN Type 99-1 (20 x 72RB), IJN Type 99-2 (20 x 101RB), 12.7mm Breda- SA FAT I ScottilIJA Ho-103 (12.7 x 81 SR), IJA Ho-5 (20 x 94), IJA Ho-IIHo-3 (20 x 125), 12.7mm Beresin (12.7 x 108), ShVAK (20 x 99R), MG 131 (13 x 64B- also IJN 13mm Type 2), MG 151 (15 x 96), MG-FF (20 x 80RB), MG 151 20 (20 X 82), MG 204 (20 x 105), MK 103 (30 x 184B) An aspect of Second World War armament which attracts little attention is that which is currently known as combat persistence - the ability to keep on fighting, which apart from aircraft fuel tankage...
With a high rate of fire led both Hispano-Suiza and their rivals Oerlikon to develop new cartridges and guns, as described in detail in Chapter 2. The new cartridges, 20 X 139 and 20 X 128 respectively, offer muzzle velocities of around 1,000 m s, while the guns fire at 1,000 rpm, both very significant improvements on the equivalent Second World War equipment. GIAT, Rheinmetall and Mauser have built rival weapons around these cartridges. It appears surprising that the Soviet Union, so keen on equipment standardisation within the Warsaw Pact, permitted the Czechs to develop the M53 instead of using the 23mm ZU. The reason is that the weapon had already been developed at the Waffenwerke Brunn, the Czechoslovakia arms works at Brno, by the end of the Second World War. Known to the Germans as the Krieghoff MK 303, it was intended to provide the AA armament of the Kriegsmarine's revolutionary Type XXI U-boats, but never entered service. The 37mm calibre, so common up to and during the...
Black powder can vary from brand to brand. Variations in percentage compositions between manufacturers are small, but different charcoals, types of saltpeter (purity), different moisture content, and so forth can result in different ballistic performances from basically similar mixtures. Owing to a temporary shortage of potassium nitrate during World War I, sodium nitrate was used as a substitute. Ammonium nitrate has also been used as a substitute for potassium nitrate.
Designed for use in the jungles of the Far East during World War II. the magazine of the Owen is set vertically above the gun, facilitating the user's movement through thick cover velocity was brought down to the required figure. The silencer tended to heat rapidly so a canvas hand guard was laced over it. It was not considered advisable to fire bursts through the silencer except in extreme emergencies. The Mark 6 Sten was used mainly by airborne forces and Resistance fighters in World War II and as late as 1953.
The first anti-tank (AT) rifle, the Mauser Tank-Gewehr M1918, was developed towards the end of the First World War in parallel with the MG TuF machine gun which used the same 13 x 92SR ammunition. It was rushed into service to provide infantry with some protection against the Allied tanks until the TuF could be introduced. The M1918 was conceptually very simple a bolt-action weapon just like a scaled-up infantry rifle but 1.68m long and weighing 17.7kg. Oerlikon's main Swiss competition was Solothurn, a subsidiary of the German Rheinmetall-Borsig firm which was not allowed to develop AT rifles under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Solothurn also developed 20mm guns, but these fired from a locked breech and were derived from the Erhardt aircraft cannon first conceived in the First World War. This enabled the use of more powerful cartridges as well as a much shorter lock time for more accurate shooting. For complex political and commercial reasons, the Erhardt was actually...
The helical magazine allows the BMP9 to combine a large ammunition capacity with a slim overall design with a fairly low silhouette. The top feeding mechanism, ejecting spent casings directly downwards through an ejection port on the bottom of the receiver, allows for truly ambidextrous action without requiring the user to change the direction of the ejection port based on handedness. The BMP9 action is the H&K classic blowback operated two part, roller delayed blowback bolt system developed after World War II and perfected in the Heckler & Koch MP-5 and G-3 series.
Although Its straight bolt lever did not facilitate fast firing, the Mauser Gewehr 98 served the German Army well in World War I. Originally made with a five-round magazine, the weapon seen here has the 20-round box magazine developed in 1918 Although Its straight bolt lever did not facilitate fast firing, the Mauser Gewehr 98 served the German Army well in World War I. Originally made with a five-round magazine, the weapon seen here has the 20-round box magazine developed in 1918 Although heavy and somewhat clumsy, this gas-operated self-loader developed by the famous Walther company proved fairly effective on the East Front during World War II. until it was superseded by the Maschinenpistole MP 43 44 The Germans were the first nation to adopt a bolt action rifle which they did as early as 1848 when their needle-gun officially came into service. Thereafter, unlike the British who went off at a tangent with hinged and falling block rifles, the Germans remained constant to this...
The need for the entire barrel bolt unit to recoil a considerable distance, followed by a delay in commencing reloading while the barrel returns into the firing position, gives long-recoil mechanisms a relatively low rate of fire. As a result, weapons using this system are much less common than the short-recoil type. However, the long and relatively soft recoil push puts less strain on the mechanism and makes accuracy easier to achieve while avoiding the need for the whole gun to recoil in its mounting. It has therefore been more popular in large-calibre cannon of 37mm and upwards, one of the earlier examples being the British 1 Vi pdr (one-and-a-half pounder) COW (Coventry Ordnance Works) gun of the First World War. This weapon was not particularly successful but did lead to the Vickers 40mm Class aircraft gun of the Second World War. which achieved fame as an AA weapon in the Second World War and has been continually updated ever since. that there is a significant delay between...
The Italian Air Force, having some of the largest bombing planes of World War I (the Caponi and Savoia-Pomilio), made an attempt to arm them with air-borne artillery. It turned to the well known inventor, Bethel Abiel Re-velli, to answer this problem. The result was a semiautomatic 25.4-mni cannon, chambered for a 1-inch projectile. Revelli claimed that work commenced on this cannon as early as 1913. It was classified as light (99 pounds), air cooled, long-recoil operated, magazine fed, and capable of firing its contents of eight cartridges in 2 seconds. The muzzle velocity was in excess of 1,320
The 20x72 RB cartridge, developed in the 1920s by the Swiss firm of Seebach Maschinenbau AG, was based on a similar but shorter cartridge used in the Becker automatic gun late in World War I. This cartridge was used by the successor to the Seebach firm, Werkzeug Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon, in the Type FF aircraft gun in the 1930s. During World War II, Germany made and used this cartridge Japan also made the same cartridge for use in an Oerlikon-type naval aircraft gun, Type 99 Mark 1. The gun and cartridge were obsolete by the end of the war and have not been manufactured since that time. This cartridge was developed by the Oerlikon firm before World War II for use in Type FFM aircraft guns, as an improvement over the Type FF gun and cartridge. During World War II, Germany also made and used this cartridge. Except for production of 20x80RB cartridges in Spain in4953, these guns and this cartridge have not been reported in use since the close of World War II. This cartridge was designed...
The status of Japanese large-caliber automatic-weapon development all during World War II is best described as chaos compounded by confusion, with a slight bit of bewilderment thrown in for good measure. No originality was shown and only a desperate attempt to meet critical conditions by combining a few good features of other weapons was attempted. A scaled-up version of a well-known rifle-caliber machine gun was generally the finished product.
The most promising British large-calibre weapon by the end of the First World War was the Coventry Ordnance Works 37mm 1 ' 2pdr. The Coventry Ordnance Works actually started to develop their automatic cannon before the First World War. It was initially tested (but not down) in one-pounder form in an FE3 in the summer of 1913. A version of the FE6 was also fitted for this gun. The cartridge case was a unique rimless type measuring 37 X 93mm.
This 1910 version of the Mod. 1906 Frommer did not have a very long period of production because of World War I and the necessary diversion of all manufacturing facilities to the production of military items. Stop Pat.-A second type of Frommer pistol, quite different in design, originated in 1911. This was the Stop Patent system, and is frequently called Mod. 1912. The system is characterized by the two-way recoil spring guide and spring system assembled in a tunnel above the barrel. The operating system is a complex rotating bolt head scheme with internal sleeves (Figs. 169 to 171). The Stop system Frommers were made in both 7.65 and 9 mm. (ACP ) calibers. They were used in great numbers in World War I by the Austro-Hungarian armies. The 7.65 mm. Stop was given the nomenclature 19M (19 Minta Pisztoly). In the 1920's, production of the Stop design gave way to the Browning system, as patented by Frommer. The Stop pistols seem to have been very popular in Austria just why is a mystery....
It must be emphasized that these were experimental rifles. The Treaty of Versailles at the close of World War I prohibited the Germans from changing over, and these arms were not put into general production. The Reichswehr, the 100,000 man Army permitted Germany after World War I, immediately turned attention to altering the Gew. and Kar. in line with the lessons learned during the War.
The fifth and last class of toxic agents used in the World War was the respiratory irritants, often called sternutators (sneeze producers). They form a small well-defined group having many properties in common and were generally designated by the Germans as Blue Cross substances.
Some time after the close of World War If, manufacture of the 7.65 mm. Mod. PP Walther was started by the firm Mre. de Machines du Haut Rhin at Mulhouse Bourtzwiller, France, under license from Walther (Figs. 282, 283). Later a .22 cal. model also appeared. These pistols seem to be of excellent quality, as would be expected if, as reported, they are produced under the supervision of Walther. Fig. 273. 9 mm. Walther Mod. P-38. Post-World War II production. Fig. 274. 9 mm. Walther Mod. P-38. Post-World War II. Partially disassembled.
Been an American, Hugo Borchard, the inventor of a pistol afterwards erroneously named for his assistant and successor, Georg Luger. Farly in 1911 a gun designer, Karl Heinemann, joined the firm. He had already made a name for himself in the field of automatic weapons. Heinemann was given the all-important job of refining the Maxim gun. His resulting achievement was one of the most outstanding efforts to come from World War I. The German Army, committed to the Maxim gun which was already under production, specified the mechanism must be of this type. It requested a lightweight high-speed gun that would fire the same 7.9-mm Mauser cartridge asdid its heavy machine guns and infantry
The slide rule principal has also been used in some interesting computing devices intended exclusively for ballistic calculations. One such device was the military Graphical Firing Table (GFT) which was used by field artillerymen to solve gunnery problems during World War II. Some shooters will also be familiar with the
It has only been since World War II that explosives were made shockproof and became impervious to rifle fire. Prior to that, many explosives, and dynamite especially, contained enough unstable nitroglycerin to constitute a shock danger. During World War II, the Allies perfected several powerful but shockproof explosives, among them plastic explosive and RDX. Also known as cyclonite, RDX is now the primary ingredient in so-called military dynamite, but it's diluted to generate the same blast effect and velocity as the true dynamite it replaced so that old blasting formulas remained constant.
This type of Russian offensive armament was not undertaken until well along in World War II. The Russian General Staff held that the low mental level of the masses would necessitate training that would be too expensive in both time and money to warrant construction of many such complicated devices. The Soviets' choice of engineers for this all-important job proved sound, for in a short time there appeared an automatic aircraft cannon that is identical basically with the well known Beresin. This weapon was the first-line aircraft cannon throughout World War II and was used extensively in close air support.
Although replaced as a first-line German arm in 1898 by the Mauser Model 1898 rifle, the Model 1888 was used extensively by Germany until the end of World War I, chiefly in a substitute-standard role. Austria-Hungary, Yugoslavia. Ethiopia, China, and various South American nations also used the Model 1888. The official Austro-Hun-garian designation for this rifle was 8 mm. Repetiergewchr Ml3. Many Model 1888 rifles used by China were equipped with a wooden handguard and tangent rear sight. The Model 1888 was not extensively used in South America. According to records of the Austrian Arms Co this firm sold 14,000 Model 1888 s to Peru and 3,400 to Brazil. Some Model 1888's, particularly those used in South America, were chambered for the 7 mm. Mauser cartridge. The Model 1888 is not uncommon in the U.S. since thousands were brought back by returning soldiers at the close of World War I. Also, many were sold as surplus. Most specimens arc in 8 mm. Mauser calibcr. Those made for German...
Rifle, Cal. .30, Model of 1917, is of basic Mauser turn-bolt type with dual front locking lugs, one-piece bolt, and staggered column box magazine. Developed during World War I, it was a modification of the British Pattern 1914 Service Rifle. In 1913 British Ordnance developed an experimental Mauser-type bolt-action rifle chambered for a cal. .276 rimless cartridge loaded with a 165-gr. pointed bullet at 2800 feet per second (f.p.s.). The intent of these experiments was to develop a replacement for the cal. .303 Lee-Enfield Service rifle. Only a limited number of cal. .276 rifles had been manufactured on a toolroom basis prior to the start of World War I, at After World War I, Model 1917 Enfield rifles were stored in war reserve and large numbers were subsequently sold to NRA members through the Director of Civilian Marksmanship. During the early part of World War II large quantities of these rifles were first sold and then lend-leased to our Allies. During World War II it...
Although prototypes made it into some of the final battles, the Sterling was not really introduced until just after World War Two, and didn't enter service with the British army until 1953. Avery simple weapon, the Sterling is remarkably robust and easy to use. It is blowback-operated.
In 1928 Italy, thanks to the talents of one of her best automatic weapon designers, had available for aviation use a highly advanced 20-mm automatic cannon. Because of indecision more than anything else, the nation did not take advantage of the Scotti aircraft cannon and, by failing to do so, contributed greatly to the weakness of Italian tire power that was so evident throughout World War II. first and a project on its refinement for aircraft use been initiated, no doubt it would have been one of the most reliable 20-mm cannon of World War II. In physical appearance it greatly resembled the Ocrlikon, in which factory the first guns of this type were produced under license. In 1032 Scotti sold his patent rights to the Zurich-Oerlikon Co. of Switzerland, which made a limited number for the commercial trade, used principally by small countries both in Kurope and South America, which had need for a reliable aircraft cannon that did not involve too much cash outlay.
Few guns have been as maligned as the Japanese Model 1905 (Type 38) cal. 6.5 mm. rifle. During the early stages of World War II, ill-informed observers were calling the gun a piece of junk. The 6.5 mm. cartridge was considered totally inadequate for military use. Few correspondents took the time to find out how good the gun and cartridge really were. Shortly before the beginning of World War II, the cal. 6.5 mm. rifle was superseded by the Type 99 (1939) cal. 7.7 mm. rifle.
Shortly after World War II the U.S.S.R. adopted three squad level weapons for a new intermediate sized 7.62mm cartridge. These weapons are the 7.62mm SKS semiautomatic carbine, the 7.62mm AK-47 assault rifle, and the 7.62mm RPD light machine gun. chromium-plated for greater wear and rustproohng. The gas cylinder being loeated above the barrel makes for an almost straight-line butt stock. In addition to the standard infantry pattern with wooden butt, a special AK is produced for para troop and armored troop use. This has a folding metal butt similar to that oi the German Scluneisser submachine gun of World War II fame. The SKS was adopted before the AK. It is a gas-operated, semiautomatic rifle and might be referred to as a miniature version of the outstanding 14.5mm PTRS semiautomatic antitank rifle used during World War II. Because of its light recoil, 35 r.p.m. of aimed fire can be achieved. Characteristics of Soviet Prf. World War II 7.62MM Automatic and Semi-Automatic Rifles
An experienced aviator and airplane designer when World War I broke out. He had previously offered his designing talents to his own country, then to France and to Britain, only to be ignored by each. Germany accepted his services at once and the resulting relationship came within a hairbreadth of costing the Allies the war. Fng-
German World War 11 Assault Rifles Considerably before World War 11. the Germans laid down a requirement for a selective fire rifle to replace the standard bolt action rifle, submachine gun, and the light machinegun and an in termed iate -sized cartridge for iliis weapon. The requirement for the cartridge originated in 1934 and several types were produced for test by Gustav Genschow and the Rheinisch Westphalische Spreng-siolT A.G. These rounds varied in case length from 37 to 46111111 and used 140 to 150 grain bullets. The FG-42 is one of the most interesting rifle designs produced during World War II it has had a great deal of influence on post-war designs. The requirement for a selective fire rifle using the standard German 7.92 x 57mm rifle and machine gun cartridge was established by the Luftwaffe for paratroop use. German paratroops were under the control of the Luftwaffe, not the Army. Rheinmettal-Borsig developed the weapon. There are two versions which differ principally in...
It enjoyed continuous production from 1873 until 1941 when reduced sales and pressure of defense contracts terminated its manufacture. After World War II the demand for Colt Single Action revolvers skyrocketed to the point where collectors often paid from three to four times the pre-war price. In light of this strong demand, Colt's in 1955 decided to resume limited production. Specifications remained unchanged although calibers were restricted to .38 S&W Special and the traditional .45 Colt. Recently Colt's also resumed production of the unique Buntline Special version of the Single Action Army which features a barrel 12 inches long
Bolt-action rifles were not very popular in the U.S. until World War I when a large number of soldiers used Ml903 Springfield and M1917 Enfield Service rifles and acquired a liking for this type of arm. Following the war, U.S. arms manufacturers introduced several models of commercial bolt-action rifles to meet popular demand. One of these rifles, the Savage Model 1919 NRA, was of military style with a long fore-end. NRA in the designation was explained in Savage literature merely by mention that the rifle was suitable for firing from various standard positions incorporated in National Rifle
Infantry because the operating lever after each shot swung down in pendulum fashion underneath the barrel. Due to a scarcity of machine guns, a few of these were placed in French and British pusher-type planes during the early stages of World War I. When ibis country entered the conflict, there was desperate need for any kind of mac bine gun. 1 he type that could be mounted readily in aircraft without demanding too much of the already limited space or requiring any protruding accessories was especially in demand. While the swinging lever of the '95 model gun In World War 1, Swcbi litis modified the Colt-Browning gun by doing awav with the lever and
This weapon was developed from the German 7.92mm short StG 45 (M) assault rifle. This weapon is covered in detail under Germany. The development in Spain was done at the Centro de Estudios Tecnicos de Materiales Especiales, CETME, a Spanish government establishment, by a group headed by L. Vorgrimmler, a former member of the Mauser design staff. Vorgrimmler had gone to France at the end of World War II and had worked for the French on development of a prototype delayed blow back carbine for a short 7.65mm cartridge he then went on to Spain to work for CETME. In Germany much of the work was done on the StG 45 (M) by Dr. Karl Meier and Altenburger at Mauser. As originally built, around 1953, the GEl Mt assault, rifle was chambered for a special 7.92mm short cartridge. This cartridge was longer than the German World War II 7.92mm short (PP 43 m.e.) and loaded with an unusual bullet. The bullet was extremely long and spire pointed, was made of aluminum, and had a short strip of gilding...
Austrian M. 1895 (Mannlicher) Straight Pull, Rifle, Caliber 8mm Austrian. Ml890 differs only in the shape of the cocking piece. During World War I this ivas an official ri e of the Hungarian and Bulgarian forces also. In caliber 8mm Austrian it saw extensive service in Eastern European War Theatres during World War II. These arms use a Mannlicher type dip. The magazine floor plate is slotted to permit the empty clip to drop out when the last cartridge has been chambered. CJ
Different makers were allotted serial number blocks, these can confirm manufacturers. They may also identify the maker and gun to which some parts belong. Some numbers at the series end may not have been utilised, figures were sometimes recorded as being terminated short (British Small Arms of World War 2 Codes & Contracts, Skennerton).
Later German designs, notably the semi-automatic Kar. 43 which the Germans employed in the closing years of World War II to some extent, also used a modification of this original system of operation. While this latter was a gas rifle, and the original Model 98 as introduced by Mauser was a short-recoil operated rifle, it should be noted that the locking principle is equally applicable to both operating systems. The lock is often called a claw block or valve-type lock-
During the decade preceding World War I, all Soon after World War I, the Russians made a conversion from their ground Model 1910, making a fixed weapon adaptable for aircraft use. Its official designation was PV-l. This type differed from Model 1910 in that it had an improved type of booster that gave it a substantial increase in rate of fire. The barrel jacket was slotted to allow air cooling, and provision was made for the installation of a synchronizing gear. Infantry rifle cartridges were used they were fed by means of a metallic There was still another Russian version of the Maxim, inspired by the German T. u. F. of World War I. The Soviets accomplished the design by simply scaling up the rifle-caliber weapon until it handled a 13-mm cartridge. It is sometimes known Kigure 2-7. The Maxim Model 1910 in World War II. Personnel arc in Naval uniforms of this period
Although now obsolete, the Mosin-Nagant Model 1891-30 sniper rifle may yet be encountered on Third World battlefields. This World War D Soviet rifle was the North Vietnamese Army's primary sniper weapon during the Vietnam War. While not as sophisticated as current Western sniper rifles, the Mosin-Nagant still sent many thousands of Germans to their graves in World War II. And thanks to generous Soviet arms aid to regimes and rebels throughout the Third World, it may still be encountered even in the 21st century.
The Stevens .22-.410 over-under combination rifle and shotgun was first offered in 1939 by the J. Stevens Arms Co., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Savage Arms Corp. This gun was chambered for the .22 long rifle cartridge and the 3 length of the .410 shotshell. Guns produced initially had walnut stocks and fore-ends, but stock assemblies of Tenite plastic were later made standard. During World War II the U. S. Air Force purchased 10,000 of these combination guns with Tenite stocks for issue to aircrewmen as survival weapons.
Note This weapon is one of the most remarkable developments of the present world war. Its simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, ease of operation, are al outstanding in machine pistol construction. Added to these qualities, it costs less than a good pistol and is easy to manufacture. The Russians are making wide use of a modification of this weapon.
The long line of fine Ballard rifles, the Sims, the Stevens Ideal types, and the famous Winchester Single Shot developed by John M. Browning are all tributes to the original creative ability of Christian Sharps. All use comparatively minor variants of his original breechlock. In Europe dozens of small but fine gunmakers manufactured dropping block precision rifles up to the period of the Second World War but in the U. S. only the Stevens found the market large enough to warrant production after 1920.
Two years before World War I a French Deperdussin monoplane had a machine gun permanent v mounted on a post arrangement from which the observer located in front of the pilot could rise and fire over the propeller arc. As the gunner stood inside the rail, he was also partially protected by 4 millimeters of steel armor. This contrivance was originated by a M. Loiseau. Later the first public demonstration took place in February 1914 before high army officials at Villacoublay near Paris. The pilot for the occasion was Lieutenant Prevost, with M. Loiseau, the designer, acting as observer gunner.
During World War I, because of a shortage of Luger pistols and a desire to standardize ammunition insofar as was possible, the Germans utilized Mauser machinery to manufacture these pistols for their regular service ammunition. When these arms are encountered with the stamp of the Prussian Government on the barrel and on the receiver, they indicate weapons made between 1916 and the end of World War I as officers' service pistols. Arms of this caliber which do not bear the government stamp but do bear standard German proof marks, were assembled from spare parts or manufactured in contravention of the rules of the League of Nations as set up by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Large numbers of these arms were exported both to South America and to the Far East. Those found in the United States as a rule will be the official Prussian Goverment issue, which were brought here as War souvenirs.
The caliber .30 browning aircraft machine gun, which was designated the Model 1918, did not see combat service during World War I. The reason was that the poor choice ol metals used in its construction and the demand for a high rate of lire caused the front lower part of the receiver to spread after comparatively few bursts and become unserviceable. The fault was ordered remedied by the addition of a stirrup at the affected part to give greater strength. As the Armistice followed shortly after delivery of the first guns, this failure and its subsequent correction seemed of small importance at the time.
Remington Arms Co., Inc., is among the world's foremost designers and producers of bolt-action center-fire sporting rifles. The earliest Remington rifle of this type was introduced during the late 1800s, but the first really successful one was the Model 30 which was brought on the market in 1921 and produced in several versions. In 1941, the Model 30 series rifles were superseded by the Model 720 which was short lived because of World War II.
The 1910 model, in either caliber, seems not to have been adopted for military service by any nation, but it was used widely by police forces, including those of Denmark, Sweden, and Japan. It was sold commercially in large numbers and by ca. 1912 it had so superseded the Mod. 1900 that that model was dropped. Manufacture of the 1910 type, in both calibers, was continued through the 1930's, along with the 1922 Model described below. During World War II the Germans, who took over the F.N. plant, made the newer 1922 Mod. only, but production of the 1910 models was resumed after the war. Pistool M 25 No. 1-7.65 mm. Dutch service issue from 1925 through World War II. These pistols are identified by having a brass plate brazed to the slide. They were possibly made by the Dutch, but this is not confirmed. *A number of these pistols were obtained from F.N. by the Yugoslav Government before World War II and were used in the Mikhailovich army that fought against the forces of Tito. Those seen...
Remember those World War II submarine movies where the captain ranged an enemy ship through his periscope Actually, he was measuring the ship's length in mils and since whole classes of ships were built to the same dimensions, he already knew its length in yards. Thus, in the same way we range today with a mil dot reticle, he could range that ship, then accurately launch torpedoes to intercept it. This mil system for ranging goes back at least to World War I, when artillery forward observers used the mil scale in binoculars to adjust artillery fire. The problem is that binoculars and periscopes use 10-mil increments equaling 10 yards at 1,000 yards much too large for ranging man-size objects.
The Ross in caliber .303 Mark VII (British) was the Canadian Service Rifle at the outbreak of World War I. However, alter a comparatively short service under actual battle conditions, it was found that the extracting power of the straight pull bolt design was inadequate for the type of trench warfare then being waged.
Mausers of all the German 98 series in caliber 7.92mm were in use in Turkey at the beginning of World War II. (2). Model 1890 Conversion. Specimens of the 1890 will be encountered altered to caliber 7.9mm. Rifles of this type were used in Yugoslavia in World War II. (6). Note All forms of German rifles and carbines in caliber 7.9mm were provided to the Turks in the period of World War I or later. Any German equipment may be encountered. (7). Since the end of World War II, both British and U. S. equipment have been made available to Turkey.
Automatic Cannon Types under development at the Oerlikon Factory since World War II. Top to bottom 20-mm Automatic Gun Type 5TG 20-mm Antiaircraft Gun Type 204 GK 30-mm Revolver Cannon 302 RK. Figure 21-7. Automatic Cannon Types under development at the Oerlikon Factory since World War II. Top to bottom 20-mm Automatic Gun Type 5TG 20-mm Antiaircraft Gun Type 204 GK 30-mm Revolver Cannon 302 RK.
There also are larger Le Francais blowback-operated pistols in calibers .25 ACP and .32 ACP. The Policeman Model in cal. .25 ACP has a domed mainspring housing at the rear of the frame and a longer barrel than the Pocket Model. A blowback-operated Military Model in cal. 9 mm. Browning Long was introduced about 1928, but was discontinued shortly before World War II. '
Aircraft guns which have been introduced into service since World War 2. As with the drawings in Appendix 4, they are not all drawn to precise scale so measurements should not be scaled from them. The approximate scale used is the same as in Annex 4, so the general size of the guns may be compared.
The Model 1888 rifle introduced an entirely new and outstanding cartridge known as the 7.9 mm. (It is also listed as 7.91 and 7.92 mm). That design is the basis of the cartridge used by Germany from then on until the close of World War II. Except for ballistic changes in the shape of the bullet and the type of charge it is the same cartridge one of the most efficient known.
About this time Mauser began work on a design for a double action pistol and by 1937 they had developed one which they designated a Hahn Selbstspann (or self-cocking hammer). This system, generally referred to as the HS system, was much delayed in its development due to patent and legal difficulties engendered by Walther's natural desire to control the production of double action pistols. In 1937 Mauser produced a few of the new pistols, designated HSa, and circulated samples among firearms authorities, editors, etc. to get their reaction. As a result of recommendations and comments received, certain changes were made and a few of this revised form (known as HSb) were similarly circulated. Finally, a third form was arrived at and this was considered sufficiently perfected to warrant commercial production. This model was designated Modell HSc, and serial numbering started around 700,000. From the time that it was brought out, in 1938, until 1945 serial numbers had grown to about...
CETME (the Centro de Estudios Technicos de Materiales Especiales) is a design group that included engineers and weapons designers who came to Spain from Germany after World War Two. This accounts for the great similarity in design philosophy between CETME weapons and those of Heckler & Koch, another heir to the German WWII weapon designs. The CETME C is a 7.62mm assault rifle designed in the early 1970s, when the Spanish army called for a weapon that would fire the NATO standard 7.62mm round. It is gas-operated, with a roller-locked bolt. It fires from an open bolt when firing automatically, and a closed-bolt on single shot, and features an integral bipod. It is in service with the Spanish Army.
Performance of Hispano-Suiza Cannon During World War II SB-W aircraft were the principal planes carry* ing this weapon into combat, along with a very limited number of F4lJ-lCs. Statistics on enemy aircraft shot down in World War II credit the AN-M2 in SB-2C aircraft with destroying few enemy aircraft. The F4U-1C planes brought down an even smaller number. However, it must be remembered that the primary mission of the SB-2C was not to shoot down aircraft.
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